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1 CHRISTIANITY text in purple for notes Voorhees

2 The student will apply social science skills to understand the development of Christianity by a) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Christianity in time and place;

3 Era II; Unit 7 WHI.7 CHRISTIANITY I. The Basics: A. Monotheism B. Founder= Jesus Christ C. Jesus is the Son of God D. Life after death

4 Jesus of Nazareth The birth of Jesus c. 4 B.C. (BCE) Born during the reign of Herod the Great, the last king of a united Judea

5 Jesus of Nazareth Jesus is presented at the Temple c CE (CE) Possibly at Jesus coming of age ceremony (Bar Mitzvah)

6 Jesus of Nazareth The Baptism of Jesus c CE (CE) Precedes Jesus public ministry John the Baptist is beheaded by Herod Antipas (son of Herod the Great) John was a vocal critic of Herod

7 Jesus of Nazareth The beginning of Jesus ministry c CE According to tradition Jesus preceded his ministry with a forty day fast in the desert where he is tempted

8 Jesus of Nazareth Jesus calls his Twelve Disciples

9 Jesus of Nazareth The Sermon on the Mount Considered one of the critical moments for defining the basic tenets of Christian belief

10 Jesus of Nazareth Born during the Pax Romana during the height of Rome s power Grew up in a province well known for resisting foreign rule Although not of aristocratic birth does seem to have been accepted by a wide range of social classes, including some Romans

11 Jesus of Nazareth The Last Supper c B.C. Jesus and his followers go to Jerusalem for the Passover celebration

12 Jesus of Nazareth Jesus put on trial by the Sanhedrin at the Temple and the turned over to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate for execution

13 Jesus of Nazareth After being beaten and tortured Jesus is marched to Calvary for public execution

14 Jesus of Nazareth Jesus is crucified on Good Friday Crucifixion a common Roman technique for punishing criminals who are not Roman citizens, particularly if they are seen as a threat to public order

15 Jesus of Nazareth Jesus is removed from the cross by his family and followers and is buried in the tomb of Nicodemus, a member of the Sanhedrin The body of Jesus is interred on the evening of Good Friday Roman allowed the bodies of criminals to be removed but usually only after a bribe was paid

16 Jesus of Nazareth According to Christian belied Jesus stays in the tomb on Saturday (the Jewish Sabbath) and rises from the dead on Easter Sunday His empty tomb is discovered by Mary who leads Peter and the other disciples there later

17 Jesus of Nazareth According to Christian tradition Jesus ascends to heaven after appearing to his followers

18 E. Paul the Apostle- 1 st missionary c. 35 CE (CE)- Conversion of Paul CE (CE) Paul s ministry to Cyprus, Asia Minor, and Greece

19

20 Simon Peter c. 64 CE (CE) First persecution of Christians by Nero Both Paul and Peter were probably executed in Rome at this time

21 The Gospels c CE (CE) The Writing of the Four Gospels

22 The Christian Church begins formalizing c. 180 CE First version of the Apostle s creed, the formal adoption of baptism, and the formal organization of bishops

23 Fourth Century: CE Edict of Milan 313 CE Constantine gives Christianity formal toleration

24 Fourth Century: CE 325 CE Council of Nicaea (1 st Ecumenical Conference) CE Arian Controversy; defining the nature of the Trinity CE Ambrose, Bishop of Milan established as an advisor to the emperor (One of the Church Fathers ) Donatism- a schism and conflict with Rome, as they considered themselves the true Church

25 The student will apply social science skills to understand the development of Christianity by b) explaining the unifying role of the Church in Europe after the collapse of Rome;

26 II. Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire A. The Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal. B. Christianity later became the official state religion. C. The Church became a source of moral authority. D. The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe. E. Heresies such as Arianism and Donatism sometimes divided Christians.

27 Fifth Century: CE 476 CE Fall of Rome 498 CE Under leadership of Clovis the Germanic tribes begin converting

28 Sixth Century CE c CE Byzantine Emperor Justinian attempts to reunify Rome as a Christian Empire

29 Seventh Century: CE Expansion of Islam both the Christian Byzantine Empire and Germanic Kingdoms of Western Europe feel threatened

30 Eighth and Ninth Centuries The Dark Ages : CE CE Iconoclast controversy Byzantine leaders debate (and fight) over the use of icons in worship

31 Eighth and Ninth Centuries The Dark Ages : CE 800 CE Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor and the Donation of Constantine proclaimed Pope Leo III attempted to shift power and authority away from the Byzantines toward Rome and Charlemagne

32 Eighth and Ninth Centuries The Dark Ages : CE 863 CE Methodius begins conversion of Russia Russia looks to Eastern Orthodox Christian, not Rome for spiritual guidance Methodius brother Cyril is credited with creating the Slavic Cyrillic alphabet and translating the Bible into Russian

33 Tenth Century: CE 962 CE Otto the Great reforms the Holy Roman Empire; partnership between the emperor and the pope

34 The student will apply social science skills to understand the development of Christianity by c) sequencing events related to the spread and influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church throughout Europe.

35 III. Influence of the Roman Catholic Church Vocabulary: unifying secular monastery preserve Greco-Roman Germanic anoint

36 The Church became the unifying force in Western Europe: The Roman Catholic Church grew in importance after Roman authority declined

37 A) Secular authority declined, while church authority grew UNIFYING FORCE!!

38 B) monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements UNIFYING FORCE!!

39 C) Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes UNIFYING FORCE!!

40 D) The pope anointed Charlemagne Emperor in 800 A.D. (C.E.) UNIFYING FORCE!!

41 E) Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people

42 Eleventh Century: CE 1054 CE The Great Schism; formal split between Rome and Constantinople

43 Eleventh Century: CE CE Pope Urban II organized the First Crusade

44 Gothic Cathedrals Reims Cathedral, France 1200 s Clogne Cathedral, Germany s

45 Eleventh Century: CE 1232 CE The Inquisition established to fight heretics

46 Heretics

47 Fourteenth Century: CE CE Babylonian Captivity ; papacy moves to Avignon, France c s CE Black Death sweeps Europe CE The Great Schism ; multiple men claim to be pope 1384 CE Lollard Movement (John Wycliffe); early protestant movement It s a bad time to be pope

48

49 Fifteenth Century: CE 1415 CE Jan Hus burned at the stake for spreading Lollardism 1453 CE Ottomans capture Constantinople, Byzantine Empire collapses 1492 CE Reconquista ends in Spain

50 Sixteenth Century: CE 1506 CE Rebuilding of St. Peter s Basilica 1509 CE Erasmus publishes The Praise of Folly, calling for reform 1517 CE Martin Luther posts The Ninety- Five Theses starting the Protestant Reformation 1521 CE Luther is excommunicated

51 In 1506 CE Pope Julius II commissioned Renaissance architect Donato Bramante to design the basilica Bramante died before completing the church- then worked on by several architects until Florentine artist Michelangelo took over the commission in 1546 CE Michelangelo simplified and unified the architectural elements of Bramante s plan ST. PETER S BASILICA

52

53 Sixteenth Century: CE c CE Reformation spreads through Northern Europe 1534 CE Henry VIII breaks with Rome CE Council of Trent starts the Counter Reformation 1555 CE Peace of Augsburg attempts to end religious fighting in Germany

54 Luther- excommunicated

55 Sixteenth Century: CE 1559 CE Queen Elizabeth I formally established the Church of England 1589 CE Moscow becomes center of Orthodox Christianity 1598 CE Edict of Nantes grants Huguenots toleration

56 Seventeenth Century: CE c CE - Jesuits established in Japan, China, and South America 1611 CE King James Bible CE Thirty Years War; last major religious war in Europe 1647 CE Society of Friends (Quakers) founded

57 Eighteenth Century: CE 1726 CE The Great Awakening ; development of the Methodist Church CE Diderot s Encyclopaedia; criticism of organized religion 1789 CE U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights establish separation of church and state

58 Twentieth Century: CE 1917 CE Bolshevik Revolution in Russia; beginning of state atheism 1929 CE Mother Teresa begins work with the poor of India 1948 CE World Council of Churches founded (Ecumenism) 1949 CE Billy Graham begins his Crusades

59 Twentieth Century: CE CE Pope John XXIII begins reform of Catholic Church and ecumenism 1961 CE Orthodox Churches join the World Council of Churches 1978 CE Pope John Paul II Pope Benedict lawsuits Pope Francis 2013

60 Branches of Christianity

61 Global Christianity Today North America, South America, Europe, Central and South Africa, Australia, Russia

62

63 The End CHRISTIANITY

64 Now it is time for REVIEW QUIZ

65 1. Origins of Christianity a) Had its roots in Judaism b) Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah c) Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire d) All of the above

66 2. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Polytheism b) Monotheism c) Paul as both Son and incarnation of God d) Reincarnation

67 3. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Five Pillars b) Old Testament, exclusively c) No church councils d) New Testament and early Christian writings

68 4. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Life after death b) Old Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians c) Christian doctrines established by Islamic priests d) Sacrificing humans

69 5. Not how Christianity spread a) Popularity of the message b) Early martyrs inspired others c) Forceful conquest d) Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire

70 6. Not an Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire a) From the beginning, emperors were Christians b) Christianity later became the official state religion. c) The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe. d) Heresies such as Arianism and Donatism sometimes divided Christians.

71 7. Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire a) The Emperor Diocletian converted to Christianity and made it legal. b) Judaism later became the official state religion. c) The Church became a source of moral authority. d) The Church became the main dividing force of Western Europe.

72 8. Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes. b) Secular authority grew, while Church authority declined. c) Monasteries preserved Chinese cultural achievements. d) The Pope anointed Constantine Emperor in 800 A.D. (C.E.)

73 9. Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Emperors pushed Christianity out of the Roman Empire b) Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people. c) Monks were the first missionaries d) Monks carried pizza and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes.

74 10. Not an Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Secular authority declined, while Church authority grew. b) Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements. c) Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes. d) Popes had less and less power

75 Now it is time for REVIEW QUIZ

76 1. Origins of Christianity a) Had its roots in Judaism b) Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah c) Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire d) All of the above

77 2. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Polytheism b) Monotheism c) Paul as both Son and incarnation of God d) Reincarnation

78 3. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Five Pillars b) Old Testament, exclusively c) No church councils d) New Testament and early Christian writings

79 4. Beliefs, traditions, and practices of Christianity a) Life after death b) Old Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians c) Christian doctrines established by Islamic priests d) Sacrificing humans

80 5. Not how Christianity spread a) Popularity of the message b) Early martyrs inspired others c) Forceful conquest d) Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire

81 6. Not an Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire a) From the beginning, emperors were Christians b) Christianity later became the official state religion. c) The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe. d) Heresies such as Arianism and Donatism sometimes divided Christians.

82 7. Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire a) The Emperor Diocletian converted to Christianity and made it legal. b) Judaism later became the official state religion. c) The Church became a source of moral authority. d) The Church became the main dividing force of Western Europe.

83 8. Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes. b) Secular authority grew, while Church authority declined. c) Monasteries preserved Chinese cultural achievements. d) The Pope anointed Constantine Emperor in 800 A.D. (C.E.)

84 9. Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Emperors pushed Christianity out of the Roman Empire b) Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people. c) Monks were the first missionaries d) Monks carried pizza and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes.

85 10. Not an Influence of the Roman Catholic Church a) Secular authority declined, while Church authority grew. b) Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements. c) Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes. d) Popes had less and less power

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