2 SSWH 4 Analyze the impact of the Byzantine and Mongol empires.
3 Vocabulary Byzantine Empire - This empire began as the eastern half of the Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, but historians have come to refer to it using the name of the town on the site of which Constantinople was founded. Justinian Code - This is the name for laws codified in the 6th century Byzantine Empire, and which revived and refined Roman law in the region. Theodora - She was the wife of Justinian and a major influence in the Byzantine Empire. Tsar/Czar - This was the title given to the leader of Russia until the early-20th century, deriving from the word "Caesar." Kiev - This is the name of the medieval state that is considered to be the predecessor of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Moscow - This is the capital city of Russia.
4 Vocabulary Great Schism - This is the name given to the 11th century split in the Western and Eastern Christian Churches which resulted in the development of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. Western Roman Catholic - The Catholic Church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, who is the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Eastern Orthodox - This is the branch of Christianity that began in the Eastern Roman Empire and is found mainly in Eastern Europe and Russia. Pope - head of the Western Catholic Church Bishop/Patriarch - head of the Eastern Orthodox Church Ottoman - This Islamic empire was established in the 14th century- after defeating the Byzantines- and controlled trade through the early 1500s.
5 Vocabulary Constantinople - This city, founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine in 330 AD, is located between the Mediterranean and Black seas. Constantine transferred the center of the imperial government there, from Rome. It was conquered by the Turks in Mongol Empire - This was the largest contiguous empire and the second largest empire overall in world history, after the British Empire. At its greatest extent it stretched from Moscow to the South China Sea. It emerged in 1206 under Genghis Khan, and lasted until the mid-1300s. Genghis Khan - He became the "Universal Ruler" of the Mongol Empire in 1206 and quickly oversaw the formation of the largest contiguous land-based empire in World History. Nomads - people who have no permanent home who travel from place to place
6 Mediterranean Sea
7 Recap Roman empire - divided into Eastern and Western Empire Western Empire - weakens and collapses The Byzantine empire continued to flourish for the next 1000 years. Power shifted to the east
8 By 330 Emperor Constantine - built a new capital city in Constantinople The Byzantine empire arose from this site.
9 Constantinople was built on an stretch of land between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to control trade. Where is Constantinople?
10 SSWH 4 A Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires, include: the importance of Justinian and Empress Theodora.
11 Byzantine empire reached its peak under the Emperor Justinian. Justinian was an autocratic ruler Emperor Justinian is depicted as both king and priest, a representation of the blending of church and state.
12 The Reign of Justinian Emperor Justinian (r ) and his wife Empress Theodora (d. 548)
13 Empire s Strength During Justinian s reign more than 1,500 cities Constantinople largest with 350,000 inhabitants cultural crossroads of Asian and European civilizations.
14 Justinian s Imperial Goal The imperial goal in the East was to centralize government and impose legal and doctrinal conformity. He wanted to regain territory in the WEST One God One Empire One Religion
15 Justinian s Code Emperor Justinian known for his collection of ancient written laws known as Justinian s Code Justinian s most important political accomplishment was codifying Roman Law Emperor Justinian chose ten men to review 1,600 books full of Roman Law (Twelve Tables) and create a simpler legal code
16 Justinian s Code These men were able to create the Justinian Code with just over 4,000 laws Many of the laws reflected the point of view of his wife, Theodora Byzantine Law was a continuation of Roman Law INFLUENCED by christianity.
17 Justinian s Code Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law) Allowed Byzantine citizens to know what law governed them During Renaissance provided the foundation for most European law became the basis today s international laws.
18 Empress Theodora encouraged her husband to make new laws that were fairer to women Laws allowing parents to leave property to daughters Laws improving women s rights assisted her husband in choosing government leaders
19 Empress Theodora believed jobs should be given based on ability and not social class Helped her husband put down a revolt that threatened his rule She worked to enact laws improving the status of women
20 Justinian s Economy Justinian worked to build a strong economy Constantinople was a meeting place for merchants from Europe and Asia New industries Silk ordered silkworm eggs smuggled from China This ended the monopoly China held on the world s silk trade
21 Justinian s Economy HOWEVER, his attempts to unite the entire Roman Empire created anarchy, poverty, plagues, and a nearly bankrupt Byzantine Empire. immediately following the rule of Emperor Justinian, Constantinople lost control of trade in the region
22 SSWH 4 B Analyze the impact Byzantium had on Kiev, Moscow, and the Russian Empire.
23 Where is Constantinople located?
24 architecture, Justinian blended Greek, Roman, Persian and Middle Eastern styles best known structure is the Church of Hagia Sophia whose name means Holy Wisdom
26 Byzantine Empire heavily influenced others in art Byzantine Art focused on religious themes Icons were images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary and others. icons - create the sense that the holy person was actually present
27 Byzantine artists developed Mosaics Mosaics are pictures or designs formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials. often displayed religious themes.
28 Byzantine empire hoped to preserve Greek and Roman culture traditions, language, religion, and literature. strongly influenced the first Russian state. The earliest Russian kingdom can be traced to the city of Kiev. Russia traded with the Byzantine empire
29 Byzantines influenced both Russian and eastern European development. The largest factor in the early development of Kiev was its trade relationship with the Byzantine Empire
30 Byzantines gave Russia a written language Two Byzantine missionaries (Cyril and Methodius) adapted the Greek alphabet called the Cyrillic alphabet - still used in Russia today
31 long-term impact of the Byzantine Empire is the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy into Russia Byzantine missionaries carried Orthodox Christianity to Russia and other Eastern European nations.
32 Byzantine influence on Russia was that of an autocratic ruler. Autocratic rulers in Russia were known as czars. Czar is the Russian word for Caesar. Tsar Ivan III was the ruler of Russia during the fall of Constantinople To legitimize his rule, Tsar Ivan III claimed that Russia was the "Third Rome." claim was reasonable because his wife was the niece of the last emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
33 Byzantine empire had its influence in the development of history. Byzantines developed a written set of law and strongly influenced art and architecture of the time. The Byzantine empire preserved the Greek, Roman and Persian achievements influenced the development of Russia and Eastern Europe Byzantine religion, language, and architecture influenced the development of Russia.
34 SSWH 4 C Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE.
35 Disputes concerning religious beliefs and traditions often caused conflicts in between the east and the west One argument concerned the use of icons in religious worship and prayers
36 In 1054, a permanent split or schism occurred between the Orthodox Christian Church in the East and the Roman Catholic Church in the West.
37 Pope Leo IX of Rome and the Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople mutually excommunicate each other They are not allowed to receive sacraments and have no hope of entering heaven, according to Christian beliefs. Pope Leo IX Michael Cerularius
38 Eastern Orthodox Western Roman Catholic Based in Constantinople Official language Greek few people could read or write, believed the use of icons was a good way to teach about Christianity Scriptures were the final authority on all matters Based in Rome Official language Latin rejected the use of icons - thought this was a form of worshipping idols Only Pope and Bishops could interpret the scriptures
39 Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church Church led by a Patriarch referred to as a Bishop Church led by a Pope Emperor or political ruler was above the Bishop Supreme head of the Church above any political ruler Bishops couldn t marry Church leaders could not Priests could marry prior to marry the job One the biggest reasons the two factions split was because the no consensus on the papal primacy.
40 The Great Schism divided christians along a geographical line.
41 Where is Orthodox Christianity mostly located?
42 SSWH 4 D Explain the decline of Byzantium and the impact of the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE/AD.
43 The decline of the Byzantine empire came with the onset of invading armies. The final blow came at the hands of the Ottoman Empire (Turks) in 1453.
44 Fall of Constantinople In the city was permanently conquered by the Ottoman Turks renamed Istanbul Byzantine culture, law, and administration came to its final end.
45 Time line: Siege of Constantinople 1453 Mehmed II camps outside the land wall early April Bridges across the outer moat are burnt by the Byzantines. April 9th the Ottoman Admiral Pasha makes an unsuccessful attempt to break through the defenders After sunset 18th April, Mehmed launches an attack on the Middle Wall, the Byzantines repel them. th On 12 of April, the Turks begin bombarding the Theodosian Walls. The artillery fire continues for six weeks On may 18th the Byzantines burn the Turks siege tower in a night raid. By may 23rd underground tunnels are eliminated. April 28th, Mehmed, moved part of his fleet into the Golden Horn. The city is blocked. In the city fighting among themselves begins. On April 20th Baltoghlu fails to defeat a fleet of Italian ships sailing to the city with grain supplies. th On may 7 the Turks make a night attack but no advance is made. On May 29th the final attack comes. The Turks find a small gate open, people began to flee, the city is overrun.
46 Here s a story or a man named Mehmed: Mehmed II started his siege of Constantinople in early April 1453, with an army of 120,000 men against a defender force of 12,000. However by May 29th he only had the 12,000 Janissaries. At 01:30 Mehmed launches a final assault, his troops find a small gate, Kerkaporta, open. Mehmed rushes as many troops as he can inside of the city. The Italians begin to flee due to their commander Giustiani Longo had been hurt. Constantine XI was killed in the fight defending the city. Mehmed finally won the battle.
47 After Mehmed s Victory: gave permission to his troops to loot the city many sacred Eastern Orthodox relics are taken Most of the citizens sold into slavery moved the capital from Edirne to Constantinople - eventually renamed Istanbul church Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque
48 After the fall: Renaissance Exploration Moscow took the place as head of the Orthodox church Italians gain all of the byzantine trade, triggers the Renaissance power shifts to western europe RESULT OF THE FALL OF Constantinople: Trade was blocked with Asia European countries (and explorers) began searching for new routes to Asia
49 SSWH 4 E Describe the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China, and the Middle East, include: the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the Mongol Empire.
51 The Mongols nomadic, fierce warriors, expert horsemen from Asia Lived in kinship groups called clans Around 1200, Temujin (Genghis Khan) united Mongols under his leadership The stirrup gave Mongol horseback riders an edge in land battle, allowing them to fire crossbows while in motion.
52 Genghis Khan Title means universal ruler Brilliant organizer and warrior built an empire by combining a superior cavalry with a confederation of tribes and clans Used cruelty and fear as weapons Died in 1227, but his successors continued to expand empire
53 This map shows the Mongol Khanates. The empire originally created by Genghis Khan splintered into four kingdoms in the decades following his death.
54 Mongol Rulers were always chosen from the 'Golden Family' of Temujin Tolerant rulers in times of peace Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia (Pax Mongolica) Pax Mongolica: created a time of stability & law, guaranteed safe travels on the Silk Roads, religion, ideas, & culture spread Provided safety for trade between Europe and Asia
55 Mongols and China Genghis Khan invaded China captured Peking Created an empire that reached from the Pacific to the Volga river Mongols were highly mobile and skilled in horsemanship unification of Asia reestablished trans-regional trade between Europe and Asia (aka EURASIA) by making travel safer and easier along the Silk Roads
56 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Moved the capital from Mongolia to China (few Mongolians) advanced far into eastern Europe and established in 1251 the rule of the Golden Horde in Russia Overtaxed the Chinese spent too much money in the treasury Empire was too large for one man to rule
57 Map represents the height of the Mongol Empire
58 Mongols and Russia Mongols invaded & conquered Russia cities like Moscow became powerful & wealthy Mongols created the Khanate of the Golden Horde in Russia and 3 others in Asia under Genghis Khan s successors, nearly all Russia became tributary to the Mongols for over two hundred years
59 Mongols and Russia Under Mongol rule, Russia experienced a cultural decay and isolation from Europe, Russians, Ivan III, defeated the Mongols: Russian troops met the Mongol troops & they waited to fight, the Mongols walked away
61 Italian trader & friend of Kublai Khan Learned several languages, ran errands for Kublai s govt. Spread knowledge of China and Mongolians Hangzhou was a central trade city in the Mongol Empire. amazed by the amount of commerce and trade
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