Early Civilizations UNIT 1

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1 Early Civilizations UNIT 1

2 Unit 1 - Outline Birth of Civilizations Mesopotamian Civilizations Ancient Egypt Civilizations of Early India Early Chinese Civilization Mediterranean World

3 Birth of Civilizations Essential Question: What factors play a role in the beginning of civilizations?

4 Looking at History Primary Source Original, first-hand account of an event or time period Usually written or made during or close to the event or time period Original, creative writing or works of art Factual, not interpretive

5 Looking at History Secondary Source Analyzes and interprets primary sources Second-hand account of an historical event Interprets creative work

6 Q1: What is the difference between humans and animals?

7 Old Stone Age This time period is known as the Paleolithic Era and is a time a of development Mankind is known as hominids The difference between animals and hominids: Animals adapt to the environment Hominids adapt environment to themselves

8 Migration As humans start to repopulate and they begin migrating Migration moving from place to place These people are known as nomads Move in search of food Warmer weather

9 Life of Nomad Moving from place to place Hunters Men hunted (dangerous) Used stampeding tactics Small Activity Gatherers Women (safer) Looking for food (berries, mushrooms, nuts, etc.)

10 Paleolithic Feats Development of: Tools Fire Language Social Groups Major accomplishment of Paleolithic people was populating the Earth.

11 Paleolithic Shift People were hunter-gatherers until they discovered farming. When they shifted to farming this is known as the Neolithic Revolution Revolution = essentially means change

12 Neolithic Revolution Neolithic Revolution is a change from hunting and gathering to farming and herding Leads to 2 big things: 1. Population growth 2. Creation of cities

13 Q2: How does farming lead to a civilization?

14 Settling Down Developing the ability to farm created a surplus of food Large supply Surplus of food = ability to settle down Early settlements started in the Fertile Crescent. Middle East Mesopotamia

15

16 Early Civilizations Developed along riverbanks for several reasons: Irrigation Trade Flooded Yearly As cities developed other things also did: Job Specialize Cultural Diffusion Social Classes

17 Recap Hunters & Gatherers Farming Farming Surplus Surplus Settlements Settlements Social Class, Jobs, Culture

18 Q3: What is a civilization?

19 CC Next Characteristics of a Civilization

20

21 Mesopotamia Essential Question: Why are major water sources important for cities?

22 Mesopotamia Area in the Fertile Crescent where the first civilizations started Main Rivers Tigris Euphrates Also known as the land between two rivers Many advantages

23 Sumer Controlled the spring floods of the Tigris and Euphrates These rivers deposited silt in their fields Soil with enriched nutrients and minerals They developed levees to control floods that were sometimes unpredictable

24 Sumerian Influence Earliest form of writing cuneiform Epic of Gilgamesh Worshipped many different gods (polytheism) depending on region Created ziggurats for priests to worship

25

26 Q4: What are some fables/stories that you heard as child and their meaning?

27 Sumerian Turmoil Government many different citystates with their own kings Conquered by Sargon of Akkad United Sumer and Akkad into an empire until Sargon s death

28 Babylon United Sumer and Akkad into an empire Government that controls a large amount of land with many different peoples Hammurabi was Babylon s most effective leader and created: Permanent Army Bureaucracy System of Laws

29 Hammurabi s Code Eye for and eye, and a tooth for a tooth Collection of 282 Laws inscribed on a stele Laws help unify and bring people together effectively Gave women some rights in society

30 Q5: What is the importance of laws in society? Pros & Cons?

31 Persians Nomadic Peoples Skilled in war and the use bows and horses Modern-day Iran Conquered much of the Fertile Crescent until Alexander the Great

32 Persian Rule Did not interfere with existing traditions and religions Merciful who cooperated with local rulers Standardized weights and coinage Expanded trade routes by creating roads

33 Persian Rule Broke up the empire into 20 provinces called satrapies These were ruled by local governors called satraps They carried out laws and were the eyes and ears of the empire

34 Zoroastrianism First monotheistic religion Founded by Zoroaster who s teachings were put into their holy book called the Avesta Focused on the struggle between good and evil (dualism) CC Next

35

36 Q6: Do we still focus on the difference between good and evil today?

37 Ancient Egypt Essential Question: Why has Egyptian culture and history withstood the test of time?

38 The Nile Life source for all of Egypt Food Trade Irrigation Predictable Flooding Surrounding area is a desert One of the only rivers that flows North

39 Government Centralized government around the Pharaoh of Egypt Pharaoh s were more than a leader and seen as gods and had unlimited power Famous ones: Hatshepsut Ramses II Tutankhamen

40 Q7: What contributions from the Egyptians do you know and their importance?

41 Egyptian Advancements Pyramids Papyrus Hieroglyphics Calendar

42 Egyptian Religion Polytheistic Continued to culture a belief in the afterlife Your actions are weighed and it determines if you go to heaven/hell Religion integrated into government and the rule of the Pharaoh

43 CC Next

44

45 Ancient India Essential Question: How has India developed like other River Valley Civilizations?

46 Geography Civilization based around the Indus River Society is based on the pastoral method of moving and herding animals Himalayan Mountains Monsoons

47

48 Early India People known as Aryans They created a social class system known as the Varnas Also known as a caste system Like other societies they based themselves off their religion and holy scriptures called the Vedas

49 CC Next Caste System

50

51 Ancient China Essential Question: How did the Chinese influence early government styles?

52 Geography Early cities develop along the Yellow River Mountain ranges act as natural defense and provide fresh water Powerful dynasties are starting to emerge

53 Shang Dynasty Nomadic Warriors Feudalistic Government Social Classes Polytheistic with a heavy emphasis on family

54 Zhou Dynasty Created what is known as the Mandate of Heaven Gods gift the emperor the right to rule Developed iron in China Created a legal system that put laws in place CC Next

55

56 Q8: How could the Mandate of Heaven help leaders?

57 Mediterranean Essential Question: Why did the Mediterranean aid in the process of diffusion?

58 Phoenicians Greatest Sailors and Traders in the region Had many specialized good to sell (ex. Purple dye, pottery, etc.) Importance today Created the alphabet we know and use Since the traded with everyone this alphabet spread

59 Hebrews Tribe originates in Canaan nomadic These people start a new civilization known as Israelites Commonly known as Jews Leads to one of the most significant contributions in the world

60 Q9: What major contribution did the Jewish people give the world?

61 Judaism - Monotheism The Hebrews believed in a single god named Yahweh Single god Omnipotent Creator of everything Written text in the Torah/Old Testament

62 Judaism Foundations Abraham main prophet who spreads religion Moses prophet who receives the 10 Commandments Commandments influence laws of the land Laws are building blocks of society Jerusalem as Holy City

63 Q10: What else did Judaism have an influence on in current times?

64 Other Med. Civilizations Minoans & Mycenaean's Northern European Settlements Not much is known about these civilizations No written documents that we understand Stories & Monuments Atlantis Stonehenge

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