Who was the Pharaoh who ruled for 66 years? Who was the female Pharaoh whose reign was one of Egypt s most peaceful? What was early religion meant to

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1 Who was the Pharaoh who ruled for 66 years? Who was the female Pharaoh whose reign was one of Egypt s most peaceful? What was early religion meant to explain? What was the Egyptians view of the afterlife? What did they bury with their dead? Who is associated with the following: Cuneiform, Hieroglyphics, Alphabet.

2 World History 1 SOL WH1.3d Mr. Driskell

3 Hebrews are the ancestors of modern Jews Their major contribution was Monotheism (belief in one god) Abraham was the founder of the Hebrews Abraham s grandson Jacob had 12 sons who established a tribe called the Twelve Tribes of Israel The Hebrews were held as slaves by the Egyptians for over 400 years

4 Exodus = Moses led the Hebrews out of captivity in Egypt to freedom in Israel, the promised land Israel = The Promised Land God gave Moses the Ten Commandments The moral code of the Jews Hebrews practiced Judaism which is a monotheistic religion. Hebrews called their God Yahweh.

5 This is a representation of what the Exodus may have looked like

6 The Old Testament of the Bible is Hebrew history Torah is the first 5 books of the Old Testament The teachings of Moses are also called the Mosaic Law It demanded an eye for an eye It placed a higher value on human life Hebrews believed that only Yahweh was divine Monotheism

7

8 Hebrews divided into 12 tribes that united under one king The first king to unite the kingdom called Israel was Saul. David succeeded Saul and made Jerusalem the capital city Under the rule of David s son, Solomon, Israel reached the height of its wealth and power

9 Israel During the Time of David and Solomon

10

11 Michelangelo s Sculpture of David is one of the most well known in history

12

13

14 The true origins of the Hebrew people are lost to time. We have no documents to tell us the exact origins of the Hebrews. Hebrews settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (part of the Fertile Crescent in SW Asia!)

15 Hebrews believe that God was taking an active role in their lives.

16 The Torah is the 1 st 5 books of the Old Testament (the sacred or holy text of the Hebrews) The Old Testament records the history of the Hebrews (Jews)

17 Abraham is the founder of Judaism (thought to have lived around 2000 BCE)

18 He was most likely a nomadic herder (sheep and goats) somewhere along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. He established the world s longest lasting monotheistic religion.

19 They believe in one God (monotheism)

20 Mono is the Latin prefix meaning one.

21 Theism is the Latin word for god

22 Torah: Contains written records and beliefs of Hebrews 1 st 5 books of the Old Testament (The Law) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy

23 The Ten Commandments outline the moral and religious conduct of the Jews.

24 The monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam religions that changed the world.

25 Modern Jews trace their heritage through Abraham s grandson Jacob. Jacob s 12 sons established the twelve tribes of Israel. The Torah tells us that famine forced many Israelites to migrate (move) to Egypt. Moses is said to have led the Hebrews out of Egypt (exodus) after 400 years of slavery.

26 Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mt Sinai They are the Moral and Religious code of the Jews Some examples of the 10 Commandments are Honor your mother and father You shall not commit adultery You shall not commit murder and Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy

27 By 1000 BCE, Israelites had established a small kingdom called Israel

28 Saul was the first king of Israel, however, David was the strong king who united the feuding Israelite tribes into a single nation.

29 Solomon, David s son, turned Jerusalem into the impressive capital of the Israelite nation.

30

31 Solomon s great city of Jerusalem cost money and used lots of forced labor Forced labor and high taxes caused riots after his death around 922 BCE Kingdom split into Israel in the north and Judah in the south

32 Weak, Israel and Judah soon fell to the armies of Assyrians and Babylonians.

33 Babylonian King, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem. He forced many Israelites into exile in Babylon. This period of exile is called the Babylonian Captivity. Exile means you are forced to leave your native land.

34 It was during the Babylonian captivity that the Torah was written down. Prior to this time, Hebrew culture was passed down orally.

35 Pictured here is the Ishtar Gate it was the main entrance to the city of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar had it built in honor of the Goddess Ishtar

36 The lion represents the God Ishtar (Goddess of Fertility, love, war) and the bulls represent the God Adad (weather god)

37 This map shows how the city was laid out during its time

38 In 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great defeated the Babylonians, freeing the Hebrews from the Babylonian Captivity

39 Many returned to their homeland, but others chose to stay in Babylon or move elsewhere. Diaspora is the scattering of people, particularly the Hebrews.

2014 History Gal. All rights reserved.

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