3 Major Monotheistic Religions

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1 3 Major Monotheistic Religions

2 the Abrahamic Religions Monotheism a belief in one god The 3 major monotheistic religions are: Judaism Christianity Islam

3 Overview All 3 monotheistic religions view Jerusalem as their holy land Many beliefs are shared among the 3 major monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)

4

5 Judaism Jews trace their beginnings to Mesopotamia lived as shepherds and merchants The father of Judaism is Abraham

6 Abraham Was commanded to sacrifice his son Isaac, but didn t have to lastminute Made a covenant a promise to God Symbol is circumcision Promised land : South of Egypt Keep God s law, all descendants will be blessed Jacob, Joeseph, Judas

7 Joeseph

8 Judaism: The Faithful, The Chosen People Every year during the festival of Passover, Jews today retell the story of the Exodus from Egypt For the next 40 years, the Jews wandered through the deserts of the Sinai Peninsula While in the desert, God gave the Jews the Ten Commandments

9 Judaism 10 Commandments examples: No other gods Don t take the name in vain (never cry wolf) Remember the Sabbath day Honor your mother and father Shall not murder Shall not steal Shall not commit adultery Shall not covet anything that is your neighbor s (including their wife, ox or slave)

10 Judaism Over time, the Jews will eventually return to Canaan In 1012 B. C., David (the one who fought Goliath) will rule the Jews He will set up Jerusalem as the capital of the Jews

11 Judaism After King David dies, his son Solomon will take over There will be a split between the Jews after Solomon s death The northern kingdom called Israel, the southern kingdom called Judah (meaning Jew)

12 Judaism In 722 B.C., the Jews resisted their new leaders, the Assyrians and were sent into exile While in exile, the Jews had no temple to worship in Instead, small groups began to meet on the Sabbath (holy day of rest) for prayer and study The Jewish Sabbath day is Saturday

13 Judaism In 539 B.C., the Jews were allowed to return to Jerusalem They also collected their holy writings into the Torah (these make up the first 5 books of the Bible Old Testament) Jewish churches are called synagogues

14 Christianity In the beginning, Jews were persecuted by the Roman emperor Augustus in A.D. 6 The pantheon of Gods wasn t helping the poor people Many Jews believed that a messiah would help them

15 Christianity A Jew named Jesus grew up in the town of Nazareth after being born in Bethlehem He began preaching a new message and gaining disciples, or followers Some Jews believed that Jesus was the Messiah, others did not (split between Christians and Jews) Mary s Boy Child

16 Christianity These Christians began to resist the harsh rule of the Romans In response, Jesus was arrested and crucified (hung from a cross) After his death, his disciples proclaimed that he had risen from the dead and appeared to them They began preaching Jesus as the Son of God and they way to salvation The Passion

17 Christianity Those that accepted Jesus as the Messiah became known as Christians A convert named Paul traveled to spread the word of Jesus His letters, along with other early Christians (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) form the New Testament of the Bible

18 Christianity In early Roman times, Christians were persecuted for rejecting the Roman deities (gods) In A.D. 312, the Roman emperor Constantine allowed Christians to worship as they pleased without persecution Eventually in A.D. 392, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire

19 Christianity Differs from Judaism in that they practice the rite of baptism (believer is dipped into water to wash away his or her sin) This baptism made a person a member of the Church Christians also celebrate the Eucharist, or Last Supper (usually with bread and wine)

20 St. Augustine (of Hippo) ( ) Searched for how to find the Truth He declared that Faith precedes Reason because unless you believe, you would not understand.

21 Islam The religion of Islam began on the Arabian Peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia) This is a desert climate and the people that lived there moved from place to place and had not permanent home (nomads)

22 Islam These nomads travelled throughout the Arabian Peninsula and traded in major trading centers a key one being Mecca

23 The Black Stone of the Kaaba - MECCA A Meteor? Worshipped for all time Muhammad was born and grew up in the trading center of Mecca in 570 A.D, where the Kaaba was

24 The Black Stone of the Kaaba - MECCA Muhammed became respected as a peacekeeper putt his robe on the ground Asked patrons to each take a corner to lift the stone

25 Islam When he was 40 years old, he heard God speak to him through the angel Gabriel in a cave (610 A.D.) As a result, he began proclaiming the word of God and proclaiming his message that there was one true god - Allah

26 Islam The city of Yathrib was renamed Medina As Muhammad was in Medina, he taught his followers The teaching and laws he revealed were written down in the Quran, or Koran This is the holy book of Muslims

27 Islam In 630 A.D., Muhammad returned to Mecca and established it as the capital of the Islamic faith The Kaaba will become the center of Islamic worship They will worship in their churches called Mosques He will eventually die in 632 A.D.

28 Islam Muslims believe in the Five Pillars of Faith Declaration of Faith: Muslims must regularly declare that there is only one God and Mohammad is his prophet (or messenger) Prayer: Muslims must pray 5 times a day facing Mecca (their holy city) Sunrise, noon, afternoon, sunset, evening

29 Islam Almsgiving: Muslims must given alms, or money, to the poor

30 Islam Fasting: Muslims must fast (no eating or drinking) during the daylight hours in the month of Ramadan

31 Islam Pilgrimage (hajj): Muslims must make a pilgrimage (or journey) to Mecca at least one time in their lives if they are able

32 Islam After Muhammad s death, Muslims looked to a new type of ruler called a caliph (or successor) There will be two types of groups emerge after his death with different ideas about successors The smaller group is called the Shiites The larger group is called the Sunnis

33 Islam Sunnis (85% of all Muslims) They believe that the first 4 caliphs after Muhammad s death rightly took their place as the religious leaders of Islam All of their heirs are then legitimate religious leaders Shiites They believe that only the heirs of the 4 th caliph, Ali, are legitimate religious leaders

34 Islam Basic Muslim beliefs are similar to Jews and Christians Honor parents Show kindness to neighbors Give to the poor No murder No stealing No lying

35 Islam There are also specific rules laid down in the Quran for Muslims to follow: Forbids gambling Forbids eating pork (like some Jews) Forbids drinking alcoholic beverages The Quran contains rules governing marriage, family life, etc. They live under a rule of laws called the Shari ah

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