Why study Religion? traditions and cultural expectations.

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1 Why study Religion? As a key concept of social science, religion is a key factor that influences the development of civilizations and culture. Religion helps students to identify and understand behaviors. Furthermore, as the map below suggests, the study of religion offers students a global perspective on traditions and cultural expectations. North America South America England Western Europe Israel North Africa Arabian Peninsula Asia India Japan

2 World Religions Look at the World Religions Map provided to answer questions on a separate piece of paper. 1. List the three types of Christianity on this map. 2. Which type of Christianity is most practiced in Western Europe? 3. Which type of Christianity is practiced in Mexico and South America? 4. List the two major branches (called sects) of Islam. 5. The people of modern Saudi Arabia (The Arabian Peninsula) and North Africa are mostly which sect of Islam? Sunni or Shiite (also called Shia)? 6. Find India: Which religion is mostly practiced in India? 7. Buddhism is practiced mostly on which continent? 8. In Israel (just north of the Red Sea), you will see red. Which religion does the red represent? Also, be informed that there are highly concentrated pockets of this religion in major cities on the east coast of the United States. 9. If Catholic Christianity or Catholicism originated in Europe, what might explain why South America and Europe are both majority Catholic? 10. What may explain why England and North America are mostly comprised of Protestant Christians? 11. Provide evidence from the map or pie chart that supports the claim that students should have a basic education about varying religions in order to understand the world from which they live.

3 World Religions Answer Key Look at the World Religions Map provided to answer questions. 1. List the three types of Christianity on this map. Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Christianity 2. Which type of Christianity is most practiced in Western Europe? Catholic 3. Which type of Christianity is practiced in Mexico and South America? Catholic 4. List the two major branches (called sects) of Islam. Shiite/Shia and Sunni 5. The people of modern Saudi Arabia (The Arabian Peninsula) and North Africa are mostly which sect of Islam? Sunni or Shiite (also called Shia)? 6. Find India: Which religion is mostly practiced in India? Hinduism 7. Buddhism is practiced mostly on which continent? Asia 8. In Israel (just north of the Red Sea), you will see red. Which religion does the red represent? Also, be informed that there are highly concentrated pockets of this religion in major cities on the east coast of the United States. Judaism 9. If Catholic Christianity originated in Europe, what might explain why South America and Europe are both majority Catholic? The Spanish conquistadors and missionaries brought Catholicism to this region. 10. What may explain why England and North America are mostly comprised of Protestant Christians? The English immigrated top North America. 11. Provide evidence from the map or pie chart that supports the claim that students should have a basic education about varying religions in order to understand the world from which they live. According to the map, one can see that large parts of the world practice varying religions. One could infer that in order to understand the behaviors of these people, one should know the basics of their religion. Also one can see from the chart that while Christianity is the majority religion, other religions like Islam and Hinduism comprise a higher percentage than Christians.

4 Common Core Literacy Beliefs about God Christianity, Judaism and Islam : A Fact Sheet Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are all monotheistic (believe in one god) religions. All three religions were broadly founded on the continent of Asia in the geographic region called the Middle East. These three faiths share common history and traditions. All three have a respect for the Bible, especially the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament as all three religions believe in many of the same prophets (messengers of God) such as Abraham and Moses. They all maintain that there is one God and that Jerusalem is a holy city. However, Christianity, Islam and Judaism also differ significantly in both belief and practice. The belief in Jesus is at the forefront of their differences. While Christians believe he is a messiah (savior) and the son of God, Muslims acknowledge him as a prophet only. Still, most Jews deny that he was a prophet or messiah. The following chart is intended to be a brief overview for understanding the basics of these ancient religions and their shared history. Christianity Judaism Islam Monotheistic (believe in one god) Holy Trinity (One God in three persons)=god the Father + God the Son + God the Holy Spirit Monotheistic One God=Yaweh (Hebrew name for God as used in Bible) Monotheistic Allah=Arabic word for God. Origination The Middle East - Roman province of Palestine. Based on life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, c. 30 CE. The Middle East- The religion of the Hebrews. Traces of Judaism are dated back as far as c BCE in Ancient Babylonia. The Middle East - Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Based on teachings of the Prophet (messenger of God) Muhammad; founded 622 CE. Texts Bible=Hebrew Bible (referred to as Old Testament) and the New Testament. The Old Testament or Hebrew Bible - Comprised of thirty-nine books. The texts are about law, history, prophecy, and wisdom of the ancient people of Israel. For example: The ten commandments are laws given to the Ancient Israelites by God. The New Testament -Teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. Hebrew Bible or Tanakh and the Talmud. The Hebrew Bible - Comprised of thirty-nine books. Torah (Hebrew: 'Law'), Nevi'im ('Prophets') and Ketuvim ('Writings'). The texts are about law, history, prophecy, and wisdom of the ancient people of Israel. For example: The ten commandments are laws given to the Ancient Israelites by God. Talmud - A body of Jewish civil and ceremonial law, customs and culture. Qur'an or Koran (Scripture) and the Hadith (tradition). Qur an - Believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. Hadith - Collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad that, with accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna), constitute the major source of guidance for Muslims apart from the Qur an. Followers Called Christians Called Jews Called Muslims Christians practice Christianity Jews practice Judaism Muslims practice Islam Beliefs about Jesus Christians believe he was the son of God, as God made in flesh (part of the holy trinity). They consider him to be the Jewish messiah (savior of the world) Jews do not believe he is the Jewish messiah. He in also not considered a prophet. Muslims believe he was a messenger of god or, prophet. Muslims believe he was a messenger of god or, prophet. Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

5 Christianity, Judaism and Islam: A Fact Sheet Christianity Judaism Islam Place of Worship church or chapel synagogue or temple mosque Fundamental disagreements Christians do not view Muhammad as a prophet. Christians believe Jesus was the Jews do not view Muhammad as a prophet, nor do they view Jesus as a messiah or son of Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last prophet and that Jesus was messiah (savior) that was God. Jews are still awaiting a also a prophet, but not the son prophesized about in the messiah or savior. of God. Hebrew Bible. Adherents Approximately 2 billion Approximately 14 million Approximately 1.3 billion Major Branches Common Religious Symbols Catholic -. Approximately 53% of Christians. Eastern Orthodox Orthodox - 10% of Jews Reform - Approximately 35% of Jews Shia - 10 to 13% of population Sunni - Approximately 90% of population. Approximately 9% of Conservative Judaism- Christians. Approximately 20 % of Jews Protestant Approximately 30 % of Jewish population does 33% of Christians. not affiliate with a denomination. Catholic - Original Roman Orthodox (1800 CE) - Believe The difference between Shia Catholic form of Christianity. both the written and oral Torah and Sunni is about the represent the word of God. leadership of Islam (in its Greek Orthodox (1054) - After original boundaries). the Great Schism (a Reform (approximately 1926) - disagreement over the Jewish traditions and ancient Shia -Believe God chose Ali selection of a pope). laws were modernized to be (Muhammad s blood relative) more compatible with to be Muhammad's successor. Protestant (1500s) - After the participation in Western Hence he was the first Protestant Reformation Culture (including use of acceptable caliph (head of initiated mostly by Martin modern technology). state) of Islam. Luther. Conservative (1850)- In Sunni (c. 650 CE) - Deny that a between Orthodox and Reform blood relative of Muhammad Jews. They seek to conserve needed to be the leader of the traditional elements of Islam, hence leaders before Ali Judaism, while also allowing for were acceptable. some modernization. The cross The star of David The crescent moon and star Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

6 Common Core Literacy Word Letter Definition Key Vocabulary: Judaism, Christianity and Islam 1. Monotheism A. Hebrew name for God as used in Bible. 2 Messiah B. Original Roman Catholic form of Christianity. 3. Prophet C. Name for people who practice Christianity. 4. Church D. Arabic word for God. 5. Synagogue E. Name for people who practice Islam. 6. Mosque F. Jewish place of worship. 7. Bible G. Collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad that, with accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna), constitute the major source of guidance for Muslims apart from the Qur an. 8. Torah H. Believe both the written and oral Torah represent the word of God. 9. Qur an (Koran) I. Teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. 10. Hadith J. Jewish traditions and ancient laws were modernized to be more compatible with participation in Western Culture (including use of modern technology). 11. Christians K. After the Protestant Reformation initiated mostly by Martin Luther. 12. Muslims L. Deny that a blood relative of Muhammad needed to be the leader of Islam, hence leaders before Ali were acceptable. 13. Jews M. Name for people who practice Judaism. 14. Old Testament N. One God in three persons :God the Father + God the Son + God the Holy Spirit. 15. New Testament Q. Believe God chose Ali (Muhammad s blood relative) to be Muhammad's successor. Hence he was the first acceptable caliph (head of state) of Islam. 16. Catholic R. Jewish holy text. Means Hebrew Law. 17. Protestant S. Comprised of thirty-nine books. The texts are about law, history, prophecy, and wisdom of the ancient people of Israel. 18. Greek Orthodox T. Means messenger of God. 19. Sunni U. After the Great Schism (a disagreement over the selection of a pope). 20. Shia V. Christian place of worship. 21. Conservative Judaism W. Savior of the world. 22. Reform Judaism X. In between Orthodox and Reform Jews. They seek to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism, while also allowing for some modernization. 23. Orthodox Judaism Y. The belief in one god. 24. Allah Z. Christians believe he was the son of God, as God made in flesh (part of the holy trinity). They consider him to be the Jewish messiah (savior of the world). 25. Yaweh O. Christian holy text, comprised of New and Old Testaments. 26. Holy Trinity P. Muslim place of worship. 27. Jesus AA. Muslim holy book or Scripture. Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

7 ANSWER Key Vocabulary: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Word Letter Definition 1. Monotheism Y. A. Hebrew name for God as used in Bible. 2 Messiah W. B. Original Roman Catholic form of Christianity. 3. Prophet T. C. Name for people who practice Christianity. 4. Church V. D. Arabic word for God. 5. Synagogue F. E. Name for people who practice Islam. 6. Mosque P. F. Jewish place of worship. 7. Bible O. G. Collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad that, with accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna), constitute the major source of guidance for Muslims apart from the Qur an. 8. Torah R. H. Believe both the written and oral Torah represent the word of God. 9. Qur an (Koran) AA. I. Teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. 10. Hadith G. J. Jewish traditions and ancient laws were modernized to be more compatible with participation in Western Culture (including use of modern technology). 11. Christians C. K. After the Protestant Reformation initiated mostly by Martin Luther. 12. Muslims E. L. Deny that a blood relative of Muhammad needed to be the leader of Islam, hence leaders before Ali were acceptable. 13. Jews M. M. Name for people who practice Judaism. 14. Old Testament S. N. One God in three persons :God the Father + God the Son + God the Holy Spirit. 15. New Testament I. Q. Believe God chose Ali (Muhammad s blood relative) to be Muhammad's successor. Hence he was the first acceptable caliph (head of state) of Islam. 16. Catholic B. R. Jewish holy text. Means Hebrew Law. 17. Protestant K. S. Comprised of thirty-nine books. The texts are about law, history, prophecy, and wisdom of the ancient people of Israel. 18. Greek Orthodox U. T. Means messenger of God. 19. Sunni L. U. After the Great Schism (a disagreement over the selection of a pope). 20. Shia Q. V. Christian place of worship. 21. Conservative Judaism X. W. Savior of the world. 22. Reform Judaism J. X. In between Orthodox and Reform Jews. They seek to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism, while also allowing for some modernization. 23. Orthodox Judaism H. Y. The belief in one god. 24. Allah D. Z. Christians believe he was the son of God, as God made in flesh (part of the holy trinity). They consider him to be the Jewish messiah (savior of the world). 25. Yaweh A. O. Christian holy text, comprised of New and Old Testaments. 26. Holy Trinity N. P. Muslim place of worship. 27. Jesus Z. AA. Muslim holy book or Scripture. Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

8 Common Core Writing and Critical Thinking Christianity, Judaism and Islam: A Comparison Chart List five similarities of all three religions Christianity Describe Five Differences Judaism Describe Five Differences Islam Describe Five Differences Conclusion: (In a sentence, what conclusion can be drawn?) Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

9 Wager This! An easy, fantastic review game for all ages, K-12 which also utilizes math skills. Materials needed - Student: A piece of paper and pen/pencil. Teacher: Material that you would like students to review such as, homework questions, test questions or anything that is a short answer. This is also fun to do with a PowerPoint of prepared questions. This game can be played individually, with a partner or a team. Paper set up - Students set up their paper as follows. Teacher may want to have students number as they go, so they have enough room to write answers. Wager This Name Answers score The score at the beginning is up to the teacher. For elementary starting with 10 or 50 is good, secondary starting with 100 is great! Here is how it works: STEP 1: Before teacher asks a review question, students wager part of their total score (shown above as 100). A wager is like a bet that the student/s will respond correctly. Students are only allowed to wager up to half of their total. Assuming students are given 100 points to begin with, for the first question, they can only wager 1-50 points (student choice.) After wagering their points, teacher reads the review question and they write down their answer. STEP 2: If the student/s responds correctly then he/she adds the amount wagered to the total, if he/she responds wrong he/she subtracts from the total. Then, before question two, students place a wager up to half of their own new total and play continues on. For example: If the student wagered 50 points initially, and they responded correctly they would have a new total of 150 points. Which means he/she could wager up to 75 points for the second question. Step 3: Students share scores at end of game. In my experience, students keep each other in check pretty well, so cheating has not been a major concern. Copyright 2015 Instructomania Pavlovich

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