Muslim Empires Chapter 19

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1 Muslim Empires Chapter 19

2 AGE OF GUNPOWDER EMPIRES CHANGED THE BALANCE OF POWER This term applies to a number of states, all of which rapidly expanded during the late 15th and over the entire 16th century. Most significant were Portugal, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire but also included England, France, Tokugawa (Japan), Romanov Russia, and Ming/Manchu (Qing) China

3

4 THE ISLAMIC EMPIRES Three Islamic Empires dominate from southern Europe to Northern India from Ottoman Empire (Balkans, Middle East, North Africa, & Eastern Europe) Safavid Empire (Persia); Shia Islam Mughal Empire (Northern India)-had lasting Islamic cultural impact

5 Common Characteristics Religion (of the rulers at least ) All three Islamic empires were military creations Governing Autocratic: emperors imposed their will on the state Ongoing problems with royal succession Ottoman rulers legally killed brothers after taking the throne Influence of Royal and Upper-Class Women Harem Harem politics: women often influenced policies, selections

6 OTTOMAN EMPIRE

7 RISE OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE Founded in 1289 by Osman Later Expand into outer regions of Byzantine Empire Successful because of gunpowder in early sieges Use of Janissary Corps Christian troops raised by Ottomans Were slaves, but paid well Provided for by Gov Loyal Gunpowder weapons 14 th -15 th centuries: Expand into South Eastern Europe 1453: Conquer Constantinople Under the leadership of Mehmed II (r ) Absolute monarchy; centralized state

8 Politics of the Ottoman Empire Sultans control politics and economy Promoted religious toleration to People of the Books Separate themselves from the masses Sultans will promote cultural heritage and development Architecture Coffeehouses

9 Ottoman SOCIAL STRUCTURE Four Main Social Groups: Men of the pen Men of the sword Men of negotiations Men of husbandry Social Mobility becomes more rigid over time Women had no rights aside from tradition, class, husbands wishes

10 THE Ottoman MILLET system Millet System: Different communities based on religion throughout the empire Each millet was headed by its own religious dignitary Advised sultan on affairs in the community Was punished by sultan for problems of the community In the millet system each community was responsible for Taxes Education Legal Matters: Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance

11 SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT Empire at its height under Suleyman Reigned Conquered lands in Europe, Asia, Africa Syria, modern-day Israel, Egypt Hungary, Croatia, Rumania Siege of Vienna (Austria) in 1529 failed Built powerful navy to rule Mediterranean Encouraged development of arts Beautified Constantinople with mosques Empire began a slow decline after Suleyman

12 WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF OTTOMAN DECLINE IN THE 17 TH CENTURY? Reached limits of expansive power early on Too large to be maintained High taxes on peasants Corruption of govt. officials & weak rulers Declining position of women

13 Achievements of Muslim Empires Math and Astronomy Indian System (0-9) Algebra Maps Sunrise/sunset times Physics in Chemistry Optics Alchemy Biology and Medicine Opened body for study Hospitals (Free) Medicine Kept records Trained physicians Medical Encyclopedias TOOK GREEK KNOWLEDGE FORWARD RENAISSANCE

14 Safavid persia ( )

15 Origins of the Safavid Empire Founder: Shah Ismail (r ) Conquers much of modern-day Iran and Iraq Title Shah was originally used by ancient Persian dynasties Shi a Islam Religiously intolerant forced conversion Tries to convert Sunni Muslims in Ottoman Empire

16 Shah Abbas the Great (r ) Greatest of all Safavid leaders Went to war with Ottoman Empire to regain territories lost in earlier battles Safavids fail at this effort BUT, they sign a peace treaty with the Ottomans (1612) and regain some territory Modernized military Made Alliances with Europe Invited European merchants into country Created strong bureaucracy

17 Safavid Society and Economy/Culture SOCIETY Traditional Social Structure Women are forced to wear the veil and live in seclusion Young boys kidnapped and enslaved (like Janissaries) Strong emphasis on artisans, engineers and merchants ECONOMY/CULTURE Main Exports: Silk items and Persian rugs Government invests money in cultural achievements Isfahan (capital) Architecture (City planning; mosques) Literature, poetry and music

18 Decline of the Safavid Empire Leaders kept in seclusion from the people Inept leadership Invaded by nomadic tribes in 1722 Gets caught in the middle of many territorial and political battles

19 The Mughal Empire Zahir al-din Muhammad (Babur) invaded northern India in 1523 Descendant of Chinggis Khan Conquered Delhi in 1526 Controlled empire extending from Afghanistan to most of India

20

21 The Mughal Empire Mughal Empire expanded under Akbar the Great (r ) Established Mughal ( Mongol ) Dynasty Ruled with absolute power Established a centralized government Took personal power Expanded empire into southern India Tolerant of many religions Tried to reduce tensions between Hindus and Muslims Encouraged Divine Faith which focused on the emperor

22 The Mughal Empire Empire reached peak under Aurangzeb (r ) Expanded Mughal Empire to its greatest extent Almost all of India except southern tip Did not follow Akbar s policy of toleration Imposed Islam on empire Destroyed Hindu temples Taxed Hindus Caused further resentment among Hindus

23 Mughal Culture Akbar s tolerant policies helped unify the empire A conflict of cultures led to the end of this empire, but resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire. Cultures that blended in the empire included Muslims Hindus Persians Indians

24 Failure of Mughal Dynasty After Akbar needed reforms were ignored Government bureaucracy corrupt Army behind in weaponry & tactics technology too many building projects Less religious tolerance Empire becomes too large internal rebellions Rulers extravagant & pleasure seeking

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