General Info Location: south central Asia Peninsula in the Indian Ocean at equator Borded by China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh Climate Temperate - Abov

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1 India

2 General Info Location: south central Asia Peninsula in the Indian Ocean at equator Borded by China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh Climate Temperate - Above 70 degrees Monsoon Seasons 3 Major land regions Himalaya Mountains Northern Plain- watered by rivers Plateau - called Deccan

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7 General Info cont. Natural Resources Fertile land Iron ore Coal Small amounts of other mining

8 Harappa Site archeologist first found evidence of ancient civilization Similar to Mohenjo-Daro 400 miles away Civilization lasted about 800 years People were very sophisticated Well organized Two story houses Bathing areas Drainage systems Artistic and skilled craftsmen Pictographs

9 Read pg 81 in your textbook First city started in 2500B.C. First cities were Harappa, Mohenjo Daro Indians worked for the British Mohenjo-Daro had two main streets Middle class merchants and craftsmen A prosperous city House made of wood and brick How do they know this

10 Reading Continued The houses Open courtyard Had a well Had a bathroom With advanced plumbing Artifacts found Spoon Clay ball Ring Grain Kernels Sculpted alabaster

11 Archeological Process Photograph Labeled Removed Record

12 The End of the Indus People Disappeared around 1700 A.D. Archeologists are unsure of reason Flood Famine Invasion Nomads from north Called Arya (noble)

13 The Aryan People Warlike people Used advanced weapons Horses Chariots Invaded India Established the culture that is now considered the culture of modern India

14 Aryan India Did not form a strong central government Established independent villages Led by a village council Leader of council called headman The villages were self-sufficient Craftsmen made tools and household items Farmers grew the food to feed village

15 Hinduism Developed by the Aryans Influenced by their travels Polytheistic Hindus worship thousands of gods 3 most important gods Brahma- the creator Shiva- the destroyer Vishnu- the preserver

16 Hinduism The World Soul Pantheism A great spirit to which everything belongs There is deity in nature Hindus follow religion diligently Worship at temples and shrines Bring sacrifices Give money Discipline their bodies To become holier

17 Hinduism Hindus try to be good enough to obtain salvation Reincarnation is a foundational belief Person lives more than once in different bodies Hindus will not eat certain animals Would rather starve than eat certain animals

18 Beliefs of Hinduism Two basic groups in India Family Caste (social class)

19 The Family Family Core of Indian life Encourage large families Includes extended family (grandparents) Live together in compounds Marry when one becomes an adult Oldest man has complete authority over the family

20 The Caste System Social classes of the Indian Society Higher the caste = closer to World Soul The hope is to be reborn in higher caste Four main divisions (start with highest) Priestly caste After death united with World Soul Held much power because directed worship Warrior and Ruler caste Farmers, Traders, and Laborers Servant caste

21 Caste System Some Indians were outside the castes Untouchables or Outcasts Any non-hindus Anyone who worked with meat Anyone who was expelled from his own caste Each caste had its own set of rules Whom one married What clothing was worn With whom one ate What one s occupation was

22 Caste System The only way to be reborn into a higher caste was to accept and obey one s current caste One could not do more or less than was commanded The caste system still exists but is not nearly as strict as the ancient system

23 The Written Legacy History of ancient times was written down Written in the Vedas knowledge Sacred books of Hinduism The oldest Veda is called Rig-Veda Considered one of the earliest books ever written Collection of the knowledge of the day Includes prayers, rituals, poems, philosophy Gives us much insight into ancient India

24 Buddhism Men began to question Hindu beliefs End of 6th century Disliked the caste system Disagreed that only priests could reach perfection Siddhartha Guatama Born into a ruling family Bothered by the poverty Lived in seclusion for 6 years

25 Buddhism Received enlightening about life Took the name Buddha Literally means enlightened one Introduced Four Noble Truths Suffering can be overcome With good works With ignoring desires The Eightfold Path List of good works to achieve happiness

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