Rome s Beginnings. Chapter 8, Section 1. Etruscans. (Pages )

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1 Chapter 8, Section 1 Rome s Beginnings (Pages ) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: How did geography play a role in the rise of Roman civilization? How did the Romans build Rome from a small city into a great power? As you read pages in your textbook, complete this diagram to show how the Etruscans affected the development of Rome. Etruscans Chapter 8, Section 1 143

2 The Origins of Rome (pages ) Two different legends describe how Rome began. As you read, take notes on these two legends. Then write a two or three sentence summary of each legend. Romulus and Remus The Aeneid Explain why these people are important. Latins Etruscans Briefly describe the following places. Sicily Apennines Latium 144 Chapter 8, Section 1

3 Tiber River Etruria Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. isolate capacity Use each of these terms that you studied earlier in a sentence that reflects the term s meaning. peninsula (Chapter 4, Section 1) epic (Chapter 5, Section 1) How did geography help the Romans prosper? Chapter 8, Section 1 145

4 The Birth of a Republic (pages ) What made Rome so strong? As you read, complete the diagram below. Use this diagram to review your learning. Rome s Strength Define or describe the following terms from this lesson. republic legion Explain why this person is important. Tarquins Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. expand chapter status 146 Chapter 8, Section 1

5 How did Rome rule its new conquests? Now that you have read the section, write the answers to the questions that were included in Setting a Purpose for Reading at the beginning of the lesson. How did geography play a role in the rise of Roman civilization? How did the Romans build Rome from a small city into a great power? Chapter 8, Section 1 147

6 SECTION 8-1 Name Date Class VOCABULARY ACTIVITY 8-1 Rome s Beginnings: Words to Know Building Academic Vocabulary abandon (past tense, abandoned), verb, leave or give up a person or thing policy (plural, policies), noun, principle or plan, especially of a government status, noun, legal position or rank Directions: Fill in each blank below with the word from above, or from the box, that best completes the sentence. You may use a word more than once. Aeneas Etruscans Latins legions Remus republic Romulus Tarquins Historians are not sure how Rome began. They think that (1) lived in the area as early as 1000 B.C. There are two different legends about the beginning of Rome. One legend says that twin brothers named (2) and (3) founded the city. According to this legend, they were (4) near the Tiber River as babies and rescued by a wolf. Another legend says that the Trojan hero (5) united the (6) and the Trojans and became the father of the Romans. Rome s early growth was influenced most by the (7), who originally lived north of Rome. They ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Their ruling family, the (8), became more and more cruel. In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the (9) and set up a (10), a form of government in which the citizens vote their leader into office. The Romans were excellent soldiers and were organized into groups of 6,000 men called (11). 28

7 Name Date Class GUIDED READING ACTIVITY 8-1 Rome s Beginnings Directions: Filling in the Blanks Reading the section and completing the sentences below will help you learn more about Rome s beginnings. Refer to your textbook to fill in the blanks. Italy is in an important (1) in the middle of the Mediterranean region. Although Italy s landscape is similar to that of Greece, Italy had better (2). (3) played a major part in the location of Rome. The city was built on seven steep (4) that allowed Rome to be easily defended. Although various legends describe the origins of Rome, (5) are not sure how the city began. Two groups, the (6) and the (7) played a major role in shaping Roman civilization. The Etruscans influenced the Romans in city planning and dress, and the Etruscan army would serve as a(n) (8) for the mighty army the Romans would eventually assemble. In 509 B.C., the Romans rebelled against the Etruscans and set up a(n) (9), a form of government where the citizens have the (10) to vote. Over the next 200 years, the Romans were able to conquer Italy because the Romans were (11) soldiers. Every male citizen who owned (12) had to serve in the army. The Romans showed themselves to be good planners. They built (13) that allowed troops to travel swiftly to any place within their growing territory. To rule their new conquests, the Romans created the (14). Under this system, the Romans gave full (15) to some peoples. SECTION 8-1 (16) were free to run their own local affairs as long as they paid taxes to the Romans and provided soldiers for the army. 33

8 Name Date Class CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS ACTIVITY 8 Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources World History Objective: Identify and use primary and secondary sources to acquire information. Learning the Skill A primary source is a record of an event by a person who was an eyewitness to it. Primary sources include letters, journals, legal documents, autobiographies, drawings, and photographs. A secondary source is a source written later by someone who was not present at the event. In determining whether a source is primary or secondary, follow these steps: Identify the author of the document. Identify when and where the document was written. Determine what kind of information the document provides. Practicing the Skill Directions: Read paragraphs A and B about the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, on August 24, A.D. 79, near the city of Pompeii in the Roman Empire. Answer the question that follows. A In the year A.D. 79, the Roman town of Pompeii, was devasted by an eruption of a nearby volcano named Mount Vesuvius. More than 20,000 people lived in Pompeii, but there may have been more summer visitors there at the time of the eruption. Most of the people escaped during the early stages of the eruption. Those who stayed were suffocated by the sulfur fumes or crushed by roofs caving in from the weight of rock and ash. At Pompeii, 8 10 feet of pumice and 6 7 feet of ash covered the city. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica. Adapted from Pompeii and Herculaneum. B Ashes were already falling... a dense black cloud was coming up behind us, spreading over the earth like a flood. Let us leave the road while we can still see, I said, or we shall be knocked down.... We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room... [A]shes began to fall again... in heavy showers. We rose from time to time and shook them off, otherwise we should have been buried and crushed beneath their weight. Source: Letter of Pliny the Younger to Cornelius Tacitus. (Pliny was visiting his uncle, a Roman official living near Pompeii.) 1. Which paragraph is the primary source and which is the secondary source? Explain the reasons behind your answer. CHAPTER 8 9

9 Name Date Class TIME LINE ACTIVITY 8 Julius Caesar ( B.C.) Directions: Use the following information about Julius Caesar to complete the time line. 100 B.C. 80 B.C. 60 B.C. 40 B.C. Background Julius Caesar was a brilliant military leader whose victories helped him become dictator of Rome. Julius Caesar was born in Rome around 100 B.C. In 62 B.C. he became praetor. Two years later, he formed the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey. He became a consul in 59 B.C. A year later, he began a campaign to conquer Gaul. He invaded Britain in 55 B.C. In 49 B.C. the Senate ordered Caesar to give up his army, but he refused. A year later, he destroyed Pompey s army in Greece and was made dictator of Rome for one year. In 44 B.C. he had himself declared dictator of Rome for life and was soon killed by his enemies. CHAPTER 8 15

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