Learning Goal: Describe the major causes of the Renaissance and the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious effects of the

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1 RENAISSANCE

2 Learning Goal: Describe the major causes of the Renaissance and the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious effects of the Renaissance.

3

4 What Was the Renaissance? A great flowering (i.e. rebirth) of culture, based on classical Greek and Roman (Greco-Roman) ideas and art, that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and spread throughout Europe

5 Why A Renewed Interest in Classical World? Classical culture was never entirely forgotten Catholic Clergy helped keep knowledge of ancient times alive by copying documents that survived from the classical period. Still, this knowledge reached few people

6 What brought about a rediscovery this stuff? 1. In the Late Middle Ages, merchants and Crusaders brought back goods and ideas from the East Classical learning that had been preserved in the Byzantine Empire and by Muslim Scholars (remember the Islamic Empire) 2. Scholars started collecting and reading ancient manuscripts preserved in Catholic monasteries 3. Artists and architects studied classical statues and buildings.

7 What were some effects of Rediscovery of Classics? In addition to art, Classicism (the study of the Greco- Roman intellectual tradition) also resulted in Efforts to introduce reason into theological debates results in the introduction of scholasticism in universities Scholasticism: method of teaching that dominated the schools of Western Europe from about 1100 until about Universities awarded degrees in philosophy, theology, law (Roman and canon), and medicine. Influenced by texts from classical Greek thinkers like Aristotle Use of Latin in writing of scholars, lawyers and theologians, yet use of vernacular in literary works

8 Now, lets look a some art to identify Classical Influence in Renaissance Art

9 Classical Art

10

11 Medieval Art

12

13 Renaissance Art

14 No need to write any notes on this!

15 Side by Side Comparison Purpose of the Art Classical Medieval Renaissance Shows importance of ordinary people, civic leaders, gods and goddesses Teach religion to people who could not read or write Show importance of people and nature Style Characteristics Detailed and realistic Minimal details No background Halos used to indicate who was holy Not realistic Realistic Emphasis on individual

16 Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance?

17 You will now explore the key changes in Europe that made way for the rebirth in classical arts and learning. Just as the illustration you analyzed suggests, Europe experienced a flowering of new ideas in architecture, arts, and learning. You will learn that fueling this growth and change were: Travel and commerce Growth of Italian city-states The development humanism

18 Growth of Trade and Commerce 1. More trade More Contact between East and West Diffusion of Ideas & Information Where in your notes can you already find two examples of this? Note them here. Byzantine and Islamic preservation of classical works 2. Italian cities like Venice were centrally located on the trade routes that linked the rest of western Europe to the East 3. Mongol conquests in Asia made it safer for traders to travel along the Silk Road to China Pax Mongolica Marco Polo s tales of travel encouraged interest in the East

19 Effects of Growth in Trade and Commerce A bustling economy created prosperous cities A money economy also encourages trade and commerce (no more bartering) Merchants and bankers grew very rich Could afford to make their cities beautiful Wealthy patrons (rich families) could pay for new buildings and art Universities

20

21 Italian City States Renaissance began in Italy. Why there? Prosperity of the Italian City-States 1.Why were they prosperous? Trade! Central Mediterranean location in middle of trade routes connected distant places with rest of western Europe People came from all over Europe to buy, sell and do banking 2.Not ruled by kings or nobles, but independent City got to keep money from trade and taxes (not going to some far off King) City got to make their own laws 3.Some city states were republics run by an elected councils Council often made up of rich merchants and powerful guilds Over time, wealthy families controlled city The Medici family

22

23 Effects of city-states on renaissance? Great wealth and desire to compete with fellow city states encouraged Rich families to pay for creation of buildings statues paintings Universities Hospitals From there, Renaissance ideas spread to the rest of Europe cultural diffusion

24 Growth of Humanism You will get the information about Humanism from the article. Read the article Answer the questions Fill in the graphic organizer on your notes using the information in the article

25 Growth of Humanism 1. Renewed interest in Classical culture 2. Scholars traveled fro Italy to learn about new Humanist ideas 3. People discovered a new way of looking at life Effects: Individualism Questioning the Church

26 Effects of the Renaissance Great European achievements in art, literature and architecture Growing secularism: concerned about worldly matters, not so much about the hereafter; replaces Medieval Christian idea of ideal moral citizen Celebration of Man as rational being in the here and now Including idea of Renaissance Man, multi-talented individual was promoted These Renaissance ideas in turn encouraged Europeans to examine long held beliefs about Science: use of reason to explain natural world led to Scientific Revolution Religion: Christian Humanist used reason and empowered individuals to study Christian works and argued for religious reform led to Protestant Reformation Politics: Machiavelli writes about political philosophy in The Prince and argues that the ends justify the means. Feudalism declines, kings consolidate power and wealth Use of reason to understand government and growing individualism contributes Enlightenment thinking

27 Trade

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