Islam and Geography. Clara Kim All rights reserved.

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1 Islam and Geography Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

2 Deserts Only a small strip of fertile land in south of Saudi Arabia Few oases The rest is Desert

3

4 Bedouins Nomads who live in the desert Organized into tribes and clans Clans give security and support since they live in extreme conditions Defended themselves from other clans who wanted water, grazing territory, livestock or food supplies

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7 Islamic Way of Life Bedouin valued Courage Loyalty to family Warrior skills This would lead to Islamic way of life

8 Trade Routes Many trade routes connected Arabia to major ocean and land trade routes Extreme south of the peninsula To the Byzantine in the north Caravan routes went to the Silk Roads in the east Transported spices to the west

9 Mecca Located in Saudi Arabia Important stop on trade routes During holy months, caravans stopped in Mecca and this brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at the Kaaba

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12 Kaaba * Over the years many different gods and spirits were introduced here Had over 360 idols brought by many tribes

13 The Spread Of 100% Islam Islam Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

14 Crisis Muhammad dies in 632 Muslims now had to find a new leader Muhammad did not name a successor

15 Solution Muslims chose Abu- Bakr who was a loyal friend of Muhammad He became the first Caliph Caliph (kay-lif) means successor or deputy

16 Abu-Bakr After Muhammad died some Muslims Refused to pay taxes Tried to say they were prophets themselves Some tribes abandoned Islam In order to get things under control, Abu-Bakr used the military to get authority.

17 Muslim State By the time Abu died, the Muslim state controlled all of Arabia Under the next 2 caliphs they took: Syria Lower Egypt Parts of Persia By 750 they controlled from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River (2x the width of the USA!!)

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19 Muslim Troops They were successful because they were Willing to struggle till the end for Islam Well disciplined Expertly commanded Enemies were not used to their style of warfare

20 Byzantine and Persia The Byzantine and Persia were already weak from long time conflicts The people welcomed Islam

21 Treatment of Conquered People Muslims were tolerant of conquered people The Quran forbids forceful conversion They let others keep their religion if they paid a poll tax People who did not convert were not allowed to spread their own religions

22 The Spread Of Islam 2 100% Islam Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

23 Internal Conflict The 2 Caliphs after Abu Bakr were assassinated After their assassinations, the elective system of choosing caliphs ended

24 Umayyads A family that came to power in 661 They set up a hereditary system of getting new leaders. They moved the Muslim capital to Damascus

25

26 Umayyads Surrounded themselves with riches Some Muslims did not agree with the Umayyads and split.

27 The Split Muslims split into two groups:

28 SHI A Believe the leader should be a relative of Muhammad

29 SUNNI This group followed the Umayyad rule and followed Muhammad s example.

30 Sufi Another group who reacted against the rich life of the Umayyads They led a life of poverty and devotion to the spiritual life of Islam They meditated and chanted Focused on the Quran

31 Muslim Achievement Cultural Contributions Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

32 Muslim Architecture

33 Cultural Diffusion It is in Architecture that the greatest cultural blending can be seen Already existing buildings were modified by Islamic Ideals Islamic Features: Multi-lobed interwoven arches Domes Minarets Large courtyards

34 Multi-lobed interwoven arches

35 Domes

36 Dome of the Rock Located in Jerusalem Rock in the center is believed to be the spot from where Muhammad ascended (rose) up to Heaven

37

38 Minarets Towers built from where Muslims are called to prayer 5 times a day

39 Large Courtyards

40 Mosaics Artwork created using tiny pieces of colored glass tiles Muslims use mosaics to create geometric decorations on Mosques

41 Arabic Alphabet Arabic was first used to translate the context of the Quran (The Holy Book of Islam) Written from Right to Left Made up of 28 letters

42 Calligraphy Art of beautiful handwriting In Islam, showing living things in art was not allowed So artists turned to calligraphy to express themselves. Turn to page 247 in books

43 Universities Muhammad strongly believed in the power of learning This led to support of places of learning by Muslim Leaders Qualified physicians = treat the sick Mathematicians and Astronomers = Calculated times for prayer

44 Muslim Achievement Part 2 Scientific Contributions Copyright Clara Kim All rights reserved.

45 Math Arabic Numbers were adapted from India Included the number ZERO Led to study of optics which helped develop lenses for telescopes and microscopes

46 Medical Advances The Comprehensive Book An encyclopedia of medicine using knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic and Indian sources of knowledge

47 Science Relied on Scientific observation and experimentation Translated and studied Greek texts

48 Pictures Cited Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Clipart 2007 Slide 5 Astrolabe-Face.jpg

49 Pictures Cited Slide 2 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Thumbnail/Islam/Islamic%20Center%20of%20Greater%20Kansas%20City,%20Kansas%20City,%20MO,%2004,%20AK/Minaret%20and%20Dome.jpg Slide Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide Slide 19

50 Slide 1 Clipart 2007 Pictures Cited Slide 2 Slide 3 Umayyad_Mosque-Dome_of_the_Treasury.jpg Slide 4 inummayadmosquedamascus.jpg Slide Slide 7 CF F8FA9CA92A A500283EBA8BC3F87336C851A1, Slide 8 Slide qus1c/s400/doa.jpg Slide 10 clipart 2007

51 Pictures Cited Slide 1 Clipart 2007 Slide 2 Clipart 2007 Slide 3 Slide 4 Clipart 2007 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Clipart 2007 Slide 9 Clipart 2007 Slide 10 Clipart 2007

52 Pictures Cited Slide 1 Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 _16108.jpg&imgrefurl= 6&hl=en&start=47&tbnid=d8wpLNkBEWKXgM:&tbnh=86&tbnw=132&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsaudi %2Barabian%2Bbedouin%26start%3D36%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3 Den%26sa%3DN Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 10 Slide px-Mecca,_Saudi_Arabia_locator_map.png Slide

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