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1 Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia Chapter 5: Early Society in Mainland East Asia Chapter 6: Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania 1. In the Rig Veda, the following lines relate to the sacrifice of the primeval being Purusha: "The brahmin was his mouth, of both his arms was the kshatriya made. His thighs became the vaishya, from his feet the shudra was produced." What do these words mean? What is the significance of the association with the various body parts? What does the preeminence of a god such as Indra say about the Aryans at the time of their arrival in India? What happened to the view of Indra as India evolved? 2. Compare and contrast the political, religious, and social characteristics of Harappan society to those of Mesopotamia and Egypt. 3. Examine the changing role of women in ancient India. How does the Lawbook of Manu reflect this transformation? 4. Examine the changing social structure of ancient India. How did Hinduism mirror the social complexity of India? What role did the caste system play? 5. In what ways did the religion of the Upanishads include an ethical system? 1

2 6. In what fundamental ways was the mandate of heaven different from other governmental systems in the ancient world? What were the limitations of the mandate of heaven? 7. Discuss the influence of ancient China. What ancient innovations continued to shape Chinese thought over the centuries? How did the ancient Chinese influence their neighbors? 8. Discuss the role of women in early Chinese society. Why was China such a strongly patriarchal society? How did the role of women change over the centuries? 9. Describe the relationship between the Chinese society under the dynasties and the people of the steppe lands. How did these cultures differ? How did they influence each other? 10. Describe the different social orders that developed during the first three dynasties. 2

3 11. In the Popol Vuh, humans were created from maize and water. Why would this explanation have made sense to the Maya? What did the gods want from their human creations? What were the earlier attempts? 12. What would have caused the societies of the Americas and Oceania to be so different from other societies studied so far? What areas did they have in common? 13. Compare and contrast the political, social, and religious diversity of Mesoamerica and South America. How did government, social structure, and religion differ from region to region? How did they borrow from each other? 14. What factors help to explain the relative scarcity of information about the early history of the Americas and Oceania? What tools do historians use to study these societies? 15. What role did human sacrifice play in early American societies? 3

4 Vocabulary List Term Definition/Significance Harappan Society Indus Mohenjo-daro Aryans Dravidians Vedas Dasas 4

5 Raja Sanskrit Caste Varna Brahmins Kshatriyas Shudras Vaishayas 5

6 Untouchables Jati Social mobility sati Upanishads Brahman Samsara Karma 6

7 Harappan Social Distinctions Yellow River Yangzi River Zhou Dynasty Xia Dynasty Qin Dynasty Shang Dynasty Xinjiang 7

8 Fu Hao Mandate of Heaven Iron Metallurgy Period of the Warring States Oracle Bones Book of Changes Book of Songs Nomadic Society 8

9 Yangzi Valley Chu Mesoamerica Olmec Colossal human heads Kaminaljuyu Teotihuacan Tikal 9

10 Maya Maya script Maya Calendar Popol Vuh Bloodletting rituals Chavin cult Mochica Oceania 10

11 Austronesian Lapita Lawbook of Manu Cowry shells Consort China s sorrow Staple foods Decentralized state 11

12 Ancestor Veneration Authoritarian society Obsidian Maize Double hulled canoes Andean highlands Agricultural terraces Lowland valleys 12

13 13

14 1. After the Aryans and Dravidians mixed and intermingled, a. Indra still remained the leading god. b. Indra disappeared completely. c. Amon-Re replaced Indra as the ruler of the gods. d. the worship of Indra evolved into a monotheistic religion. e. Indra receded into the background. 2. Mohenjo-daro was a. the mother goddess of the earliest Indian society. b. an important early thinker in the rise of Hinduism. c. one of the two main cities of the Harappan society. d. a collection of early Indian religious texts. e. the combination of two Indian sun gods. 3. Which statement about Harappan society is FALSE? a. Most of their houses featured private showers and toilets. b. They traded extensively with the Mesopotamians. c. They had social distinctions. d. Their writings have provided a wealth of information for historians. e. They produced representational art. 4. Which of the following statements about the Aryans is NOT true? a. They might have been the first people to domesticate horses, hitching them to carts and wagons. b. They spread variations of their language from India to Europe. c. Their original homeland was probably the Ukraine and southern Russia. d. They brought the first written language to India. e. They consumed both dairy products and beef. 5. This passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "Now as a man is like this or like that, according as he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be: a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts, bad." a. dharma b. samsara c. varna d. karma e. moksha 6. Which of the following answers is correct chronologically? a. Xia, Zhou, Shang, Qin b. Shang, Yangshao, Xia, Zhou c. Yangshao, Xia, Shang, Zhou d. Yangshao, Shang, Xia, Zhou e. Zhou, Shang, Yangshao, Xia 7. The mandate of heaven a. gave the Chinese emperors unlimited power. b. created the notion of the Chinese emperors as gods. c. positioned China as a theocracy ruled by priests. d. allowed the ruler to serve as a link between the heavens and the earth. e. originated with the Indo-Europeans before they reached China. 14

15 8. One of the reasons for the eventual collapse of the Zhou dynasty was the inability of its emperors to control the production of a. bronze. b. iron. c. tin. d. copper. e. steel. 9. The nomadic tribes to the north and west of China traded with the Zhou a. and eventually completely copied Chinese culture. b. but did not imitate Chinese ways. c. and were conquered by the Zhou emperors. d. and brought profound cultural influences to the Chinese. e. and eventually brought China under their control. 10. In an effort to foretell the future, the Shang made use of a. a careful examination of the movements of the planets. b. sheeps' entrails. c. oracle bones. d. prophetic visions brought about by consuming soma. e. tea leaves. 11. Ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because a. it pleased their god Indra. b. the flow of blood terrified their enemies. c. it was associated with rain and agriculture. d. they had copied the technique from the earlier Aztecs. e. blood was considered taboo. 12. The Olmec ceremonial centers of San Lorenzo and La Venta were destroyed by a. earthquakes. b. the Maya. c. the Teotihuacan. d. the Olmecs themselves. e. volcanic eruptions that trapped the survivors and left distinctive archaeological records. 13. Which of the following mathematical concepts, essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers, was invented by Maya mathematicians? a. infinity b. zero c. long division d. exponential notation e. negative numerals 15

16 14. Which statement correctly describes the relationship between the aboriginal peoples of Australia and New Guinea? a. The aboriginal peoples of Australia maintained hunting and gathering societies, while in New Guinea they turned to agriculture. b. The two fought a centuries-long civil war. c. The aboriginal peoples of New Guinea maintained hunting and gathering societies, while in Australia they turned to agriculture. d. The aboriginal peoples of Australia learned their written language from New Guinea. e. The aboriginal peoples of New Guinea learned their written language from Australia. 15. The Popol Vuh was the a. most important of the Maya gods. b. largest Olmec ceremonial center. c. Maya story of creation. d. greatest Austronesian epic. e. Olmec law code. 16

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