Origins of Hinduism Buddhism, and Jainism

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1 Origins of Hinduism Buddhism, and Jainism

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5 Nature of faith Religions build on the experiences of cultural groups. Hinduism is unique in that it doesn t trace its origins to the clarity of teachings of one prominent individual as you see in Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. It lacks a patriarch.

6 Hinduism Began before recorded time Evolved from diverse experiences of people in India. Draws origins from interaction between Sanskrit speaking Aryans and indigenous Dravidians. Traces roots to Indus Valley civilization

7 A Sacred Geography More than any faith, Hinduism is India. It has places of great sanctity. Places visited by gods, saints, places with great shrines. Pilgrimage routes

8 Central Beliefs Great flexibility Holy texts Living changing system based on Indian history. Wide variety of deities.

9 The Rigveda Composed during the Aryan phase. Veda-knowledge Portrays various gods such as Indra. Speculates on a variety of subjects including creation Provides origins of Caste system Purusha myth

10 Caste System

11 Caste System Embedded in Aryan culture Hereditary structure Variant culture and legal systems Likely evolved of Indian diversity Four primary cates: Brahmin: teachers/priests Kshatriyas: warriors/aristocrats Vaishya: merchants Shudras: untouchables

12 Caste System India has 750,000 villages Customs of caste are largely local None of the four initial varna exist as they did.

13 Caste v. Government at the basic level of everyday life interrelationships between the subcastes within the community were the most influential factor in village life, and this tended to divert attention from political relationships and loyalties to local caste relationships and loyalties. Central political authority became more and more remote.

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15 Brahma

16 Ganesh

17 Kali

18 Krishna Krishna and Radha

19 Shiva

20 Vishnu

21 Upanishads Composed between B.C.E Proclaim the oneness of the individual and the universe Concepts of Atman,Samsara, Karma, and Dharma

22 Terms Samsara: reincarnation Dharma: religious and ethical duties of all living creatures Atman: soul of each individual Karma: set of activities of each creature and the effects of these acts. good karma Maya: illusion of life Moksha: unification with Brahma

23 Epic Poems Mahabharata: longest single poem in the world (10x the length of the complete Bible) Great civil war fought between branches of one family. Filled with moral teachings and political reflection. Stories of lie and death Most famous the Bhagavad Gita (song of God)

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26 Importance of the Gita Summation of key doctrines of Hinduism Duty, cycle of life and death, morality.

27 Epic Poems Ramayana: written in about 750 B.C.E Story of the mythical god king Rama s victory over the demon king Ravana of Sri Lanka who had kidnapped his wife Sita. Filled with battles and stories of loyalty and morality.

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29 Puranas Similar to Hesiod s Theogony in Greece Tells tales of the Gods and Kings Emergence of the main gods of Hinduism: Vishnu and Shiva (regionalism) Written after Upanishads

30 Importance of Temples and Shrines Can be monumental or personal. Temples were built to encourage prayer most famous Ellora. Flourished primarily in the South

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33 Temples Building a temple gave a ruler legitimacy and power Temples served to educate, provide faith, facilitate trade, education and a major role in finance (banking, money lending)

34 Buddhism 500 BCE people begin to question the role of the Brahman s and their elitist ways. Siddharta Guattama: the Buddha born in 563 BCE His story an interesting one!

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39 Buddhist Doctrine 4 noble truths: 1. As long as people remain in the cycle of life and death they will suffer. 2. This suffering is caused by a craving for individual satisfaction through things that have no lasting value 3. People can break out of this suffering by giving up selfishness. 4. The way to overcome this selfishness is to follow the middle way a path between self indulgence and rigid self discipline

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41 Devout Buddhists Motto of all Buddhists: I seek refuge in the Buddha, I seek refuge in the doctrine, I seek refuge in the Sangha (monks).

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43 Nirvana a philosophy, a goal of a state in which they release themselves from the cycle of life and death. 8 fold path: second component of Buddhist doctrine establishing the understanding of what is right conduct.

44 Famous last words: work out your own salvation with diligence Buddha died at age 80 quite old!

45 Spread of Buddhism Buddhism will spread into two different varieties: Mahayanna: Buddha viewed as divine (China, Tibet, and Japan) Bodhisatvas Theravadda: Buddha viewed as a prophet of sorts, a leader (Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand)

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47 Buddhist Decline Hunas invasion Limited class appeal (upper-excluded) Gupta renaissance Silk Roads Muslim invasions

48 Jainism Founded by the Mahavir in 540 B.C.E Reject the caste system Absence of a god goal a purified soul attained through an intense belief in Ahimsa. Eternal law of ethical treatment Usually urban, never farmers

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51 The Mahavira : founder of Jainism

52 Classical Indian Achievements other than religions Arthashastra Rule by Dharma Patilaputra Hospital care for all Public works and roads POLITICAL ACHIEVEMENT Quadratic formula Zero Decimals Nalanda University Round Earth Heliocentric Universe Axis for earth Poet Kalidassa CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENT

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