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1 Chapter 7: The Empires of Persia Chapter 8: The Unification of China Chapter 9: State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1. In the Gathas, Zarathustra wrote, "In the beginning, there were two Primal Spirits, Twins spontaneously active." Who were these "Twins"? Could it be argued that Zoroastrianism was not monotheistic at all? If Zoroastrianism is not monotheistic, might Christianity not be monotheistic? 2. Examine the relationship between the various Persian dynasties and the Zoroastrian religion. What does the spread of this religion say about the Persian philosophy of rule? 3. Examine the development of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires. In what ways were they a continuation of the Achaemenid tradition? In what ways were they different? 4. Examine Map 7.1, The Achaemenid and Seleucid empires, B.C.E. and B.C.E. Compare the size of the Achaemenid empire to the size of earlier states, as well as to that of the later Seleucids, Parthians, and Sasanids. What would be the difficulties of ruling a state this large? How cosmopolitan was the Achaemenid empire? Explain the significance of the Royal Road. 5. What agricultural technologies and techniques did the Persians use to produce the large surpluses they needed to feed their huge population of nonfood producers? 1

2 6. In the Daodejing, Laozi stated, "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, yet for attacking things that are hard and strong there is nothing that surpasses it." How is this statement representative of Daoist thought? 7. Discuss the role of human nature in Chinese philosophical thought. How did the Chinese view human nature, and how did this view shape their political philosophy? Compare this view to those of other civilizations we have covered. 8. Examine the painting of Confucius on page 155. How is he represented in this picture? There were no contemporary portraits of Confucius. What role might a later artist play in helping to create a lasting image of a historical figure? 9. What were the fundamental principles of Legalism, and how do these differ from those of Confucianism and Daoism? 10. The Legalists held that the foundations of any state were agriculture and armed forces. Why would they believe this? Is there any truth to this statement? 2

3 11. What social changes worked to transform the caste system during these years? What were the long-term consequences of this transformation? How was Hinduism transformed? 12. Examine the reign of Ashoka Maurya. In what ways was his reign the high point of Mauryan rule? How did he affect the religious beliefs of India and Asia? 13. Read the passage from the Bhagavad Gita (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Caste Duties according to the Bhagavad Gita). Krishna speaks to Arjuna and says, "Having regard to your own duty, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better for a kshatriya than a righteous battle." What Hindu concept does this comment represent? How would this concept be different from Jainism or even Daoism? 14. In what ways did the development of trade and manufacturing impact the caste system? 15. Compare and contrast the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. What were the essential differences between the two? What hope did they give to the common people of India? 3

4 Vocabulary List Term Definition/Significance Achaemenids Medes Cyrus Pasargadae Darius Aegean Persepolis 4

5 Cambyses Persian Royal Road Marathon Alexander of Macedon Gaugamela Seleucids Parthians Mithradates I 5

6 Ctesiphon Sasanids Qanat Zoroastrianism Gathas Zarathustra Parsis Manichaeism 6

7 Warring States Confucianism Daoism Legalism Kong Fuzi Junzi Confucian Values Mencius 7

8 Xunzi Laozi Daodejing Zhuangzi Wuwei Shang Yang Han Feizi Qin Shihuangdi 8

9 Xianyang Liu Bang Sima Qian Early Han Xiongnu Han Wudi Modu Ban Zhao 9

10 Wang Mang Later Han Yellow Turban Uprising Mauryan Gandhara Chandragupta Maurya Kautalya Arthashastra 10

11 Ashoka Kushan Empire Guptas White Huns Mahabharata & Ramayana Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas 11

12 Shudras Jati Charvaka Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira Ahimsa Siddhartha Gautama Bodh Gaya 12

13 Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path Nirvana Dharma Bodhisattvas Vishunu Bhagavad Gita Krishna 13

14 1. Which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct, chronologically? a. Achaemenids, Sasanids, Seleucids, Parthians b. Parthians, Achaemenids, Seleucids, Sasanids c. Sasanids, Parthians, Seleucids, Achaemenids d. Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids e. Sasanids, Seleucids, Parthians, Achaemenids 2. The founder of the Achaemenid empire was a. Xerxes. b. Cambyses. c. Cyrus. d. Darius. e. Alexander. 3. Satrapies were a. Mesopotamian kings. b. Egyptian administrators. c. Persian administrative units. d. demons of the Lydian underworld. e. Arabian merchants. 4. The Persian legal code was designed to a. codify the laws of the subject peoples. b. abolish the laws of individual lands. c. impose a uniform law code on the entire empire. d. terrify the subject tribes of the empire into submission. e. enslave the conquered tribes. 5. The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires a. created states on a far grander scale than the Achaemenid empire. b. employed a form of imperial administration copied from the Achaemenids. c. were fundamentally different from the Achaemenids in their political structure. d. were early petty kingdoms that helped give rise to the later Achaemenid empire. e. copied the Roman model. 6. The words "good words, good thoughts, good deeds" were used to sum up the view of morality of the a. Jews. b. Zoroastrians. c. Hindus. d. Buddhists. e. Greeks. 7. Which of the following basic tenets of Zoroastrianism did NOT influence later religions? a. A. the belief in a heaven and hell b. the encouragement of high moral standards c. the view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored d. the doctrine that individuals will undergo a final judgment e. the belief that each individual plays a key role in determining his or her spiritual destiny 8. The Qin and Han dynasties a. copied the ruling techniques of the Aryans. b. did not push for centralization as thoroughly as the Achaemenids did. c. imposed order on India. d. never mastered the administrative brilliance and unification of the Zhou period. e. went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unity. 14

15 9. The philosophy of Confucius a. formed a thoroughly practical and secular approach to life. b. called for a strict adherence to the will of the gods. c. addressed abstruse philosophical questions. d. was deeply religious. e. was inspired by the Hindu Upanishads. 10. Confucius believed that political and social harmony a. came from a retreat into a quiet life of meditation. b. arose from the proper ordering of human relationships. c. depended on the proper structuring of a strong centralized government. d. was available to human beings if they expressed a deep devotion to the gods. e. could only be imposed by a powerful king. 11. Which of the following Confucian terms, with its translation, is NOT correct? a. ren benevolence b. li passion c. xiao filial piety d. dao way e. junzi superior individuals 12. At the heart of Mencius's philosophy was the belief that a. human nature was essentially good. b. it was better to withdraw from life and follow a path of inaction. c. a repressive government was the best approach to curbing human selfishness. d. deep devotion would bring reward from the gods. e. human nature was essentially bad. 13. The philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life of reflection and introspection was a. Legalism. b. Confucianism. c. Daoism. d. Mencianism. e. Platonism. 14. What was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to China after the Period of the Warring States? a. Confucianism b. Draconianism c. Daoism d. Legalism e. neo-confucianism 15. In an effort to bring about effective governmental control, the Legalists a. relied on the example set by hard-working junzi. b. stressed that the peasants should follow the Daoist doctrine of inaction. c. established the principle of collective responsibility before the law. d. stressed the need for education. e. suggested that each individual Hindu focus on his or her caste duties. 16. As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy, a. the classically Confucian concern for peasants became more pronounced. b. social distinctions became almost invisible. c. the status of women improved dramatically. d. the gap between rich and poor grew dangerously large. e. Hinduism increasingly appealed to the lower classes. 15

16 17. Wang Mang a. was primarily known for his adherence to Legalist doctrines. b. was famous for creating a new and lasting dynasty. c. stood as the greatest single military threat during the Later Han period. d. was a Daoist term referring to disengagement from the world. e. carried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the "socialist emperor." 18. During the time of the Aryans, the Indian political landscape was characterized by a. a series of small kingdoms. b. efficient centralized government. c. constant bloody civil war. d. two equally matched rival states. e. a turbulent but profitable union with China. 19. The first ruler to unify India was a. Cyrus the Great. b. Ashoka Maurya. c. Chandragupta Maurya. d. Harsha. e. Shihuangdi. 20. One of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler's decision to a. trade exclusively with China. b. debase the currency. c. not invest in sea trade. d. borrow money from Persia at high interest rates. e. stop trading with the Persians. 21. After the collapse of the Mauryan empire, India a. returned to a series of regional kingdoms. b. was immediately reunified in a new empire. c. was united by a new wave of invaders. d. suffered through a long period of chaos marked by a later Dravidian uprising. e. was absorbed into the expanding Chinese empire. 22. Politically, the Guptas a. achieved the same level of centralized power that had existed under the Mauryas. b. left local government and administration in the hands of their allies. c. created a much larger and more powerful state than the Mauryas did. d. brought unprecedented civil strife to India. e. were able to bring complete unification to India by spreading a state-supported religion. 23. The two great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, a. called for an end to the caste system. b. championed the rights of women. c. showed the same questioning of divine judgment that would later mark Greek thought. d. commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures. e. were written during a period when Indian society was strongly matriarchal. 24. One of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was a. the elimination of the brahmins as a caste. b. the rise of guilds, which essentially served as jati. c. the rise of the untouchables to an equal status to the rest of the castes. d. the rise of the kshatriyas to the top position. e. the complete destruction of the caste system. 16

17 25. The greatest social contribution of the Jains was a. their support of the traditional caste system. b. the fact that they did not recognize social hierarchies based on caste. c. their incorporation into the brahmin caste. d. the implementation of their law code after they became the leading religion of India. e. their incorporation into the kshatriyas. 17

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