Roman Empire Study Guide Review

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1 Roman Empire Study Guide Review

2 Question 1 Who was considered the head of a Roman household? The father Why? He made all the decisions; his word was law

3 Question 2 Who were missionaries? People who spread religious beliefs onto others. How were they able to spread Christianity? The PaxRomanaallowed them to travel across Roman lands safely. Since most people spoke Greek or Latin, missionaries could communicate with them directly.

4 Question 3 Why did Christianity appeal to the poor? The poor lived very hard lives. They liked a religion that promised a happier life after death.

5 Question 4 What were monasteries? Communities where monks lived. Why were monasteries established? To help other people by doing good deeds and setting the example of Christian living.

6 Question 5 What happened to the church in 1054 A.D.? It separated into two parts. Roman Catholic Church = Latin-speaking people Eastern Orthodox = Greek-speaking people Why? People who spoke Latinaccepted the pope as the head of the church. People who spoke Greekdid not accept the pope as the leader of their churches.

7 Question 6 Who were the two emperors who tried to save the Roman Empire? Diocletian Constantine

8 Question 7 What is inflation? A period of rapidly rising prices.

9 Question 8 How did daily life differ between rich Romans and poor Romans? Housing Rich Romans: Lived in a domus, or mansions built with marble; had kitchens and furnaces in their homes. Poor Romans: Lived in crowded apartments; had small grills to cook their meals Education Rich Romans: Rich boys continued schooling after the age of 12; rich girls received private lessons at home from slaves. Poor Romans: Poor children were sent to work instead of school; they learned the jobs of their fathers.

10 Question 9 Why did the Roman Empire fall? Identify and fully describetwo of the four causes we discussed in class. Political Causes Economic Causes Foreign Causes Social Causes

11 Political Causes No written rules about who inherits the throne after an emperor s death Frequent fights for power Poor leaders weakened the government Many officials took bribes

12 Economic Causes More money was needed to manage the empire Romans had to pay higher taxes Inflation occurred: A period of rapidly rising prices Coins lost value and prices increased throughout the empire Bartering grew: selling/exchanging goods without using money

13 Foreign Causes Many military officials were only in it for money. No money to pay military = weak military Rome s weak legions were unable to protect Rome s borders Germanic tribes attacked parts of the empire Trade and farming declined = food shortage

14 Social Causes Taxes were too great; many stopped paying taxes Cost of living was high Not enough housing in the city to support everyone Not enough jobs in the city due to a large number of people enslaved

15 Question 10 Explain at least two ways of how Diocletian and Constantine each attempted to save the Roman Empire. You need to explain two for each.

16 Diocletian s Attempts He fortified the frontiers to stop invasion. He ordered workers to stay in the same jobs until they died. He made city officials personally responsible for the taxes their communities had to pay. He established Rule by Divine Right An emperor s right to rule came from the gods, not the people. He split the Roman Empire into two parts: Western Rome and Eastern Rome.

17 Constantine s Attempts 1. He directed the sons of workers to follow their fathers trade. 1. The sons of farmers had to stay and work the land their fathers worked. 2. The sons of ex-soldiers had to serve in the army. 2. He moved the Empire s capital from Rome to Constantinople.

18 Question 11 Why did Diocletian and Constantine both fail at trying to save the Roman Empire? Rich landowners moved to the country, created estates, and produced enough food and goods to satisfy everyone living there. The Roman legions could not hold back attacks by Germanic tribes.

19 Question 12 How did Germanic tribes replace the Roman government? Who were the tribes and where modern day areas did they settle/conquer? The Roman Empire in the West had faded away. Six major and a lot of minor Germanic kingdoms replaced the empire, but kept many Roman practices.

20 WH Textbook: P. 271, Atlas: P , 96-97, 98-99

21 Germanic Conquerors Germanic Group Ostrogoths (East Goths) Area(s) Settled/Conquered Northern Balkan Peninsula, Northern Italy Visigoths (West Goths) Rome, Spain, Gaul Vandals Spain, North Africa, Rome Franks Gaul, parts of Germany Lombards Northern Italy Jutes, Angles, Saxons Anglo-Saxons Britain

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