Key Issue 1: Where Are the World s Religions Distributed?

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1 Revised 2018 NAME: PERIOD: Rubenstein: The Cultural Landscape (12 th edition) Chapter Six Religions (pages 182 thru 227) This is the primary means by which you will be taking notes this year and they are referred to in the course as Key Issue Questions or Guided Reading Notes. You will be expected to print out these pages from the class webpage and write the answers directly below each question. These notes are to be kept in a 3-ring binder for the entire year and will be the foundation for studying for the individual section reading checks and chapter tests, the Semester Exams, and the AP Exam in May. Key Issue 1: Where Are the World s Religions Distributed? INTRODUCING RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME IDENTIFY THE WORLD S MAJOR RELIGIONS 1. Why is it difficult to know exactly how many adherents (followers) each religion may have? 2. World religions can be grouped into four categories: a. Four Largest Religions (77% of the world s people): (2.2 billion adherents); (1.6 billion adherents); (1 billion adherents); and (500 million adherents) b. Folk Religions 6% of the world s people): 3 largest groups are -,, and c. Other Religions (1% of the world s people): 4 largest groups (between 14 and 23 million adherents each) are -,,, and 6 other groups (between 1 and 10 million adherents) -,,,,, and d. Unaffiliated (16% of the world s people). What does unaffiliated mean?

2 3. In geographic terms, what does atheism mean? 4. In geographic terms, what does agnosticism mean? 5. In geographic terms, what does universalizing religions mean? 6. In geographic terms, what does ethnic religions mean? 7. The three main universalizing religions are:,, and. Ethnic religions include and. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR RELIGIONS 8. is the most widely practiced religion in every country of the Western Hemisphere and in most countries of Europe and sub-saharan Africa. Islam is the most widely practiced religion in nearly every country of,, and. Buddhism or Hinduism is widely practiced in. is the most widely practiced religion in. 9. More than percent of Latin Americans and more than percent of Europeans and North Americans identify themselves as. More than of the people of Central Asia and of Southwest Asia and North Africa identify themselves as. 10. What is the breakdown of religious affiliation within East Asia? What is the breakdown of religious affiliation within South Asia?

3 What is the breakdown of religious affiliation within Southeast Asia? What is the breakdown of religious affiliation within sub-saharan Africa? DISTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN BRANCHES 11. What is the difference between a branch, a denomination, and a congregation? a. branch: b. denomination: c. congregation: 12. The three major branches of Christianity are:, and. 13. Within which regions of Europe is Roman Catholicism the dominant Christian branch? and Which region of Europe is predominantly Protestant? Which regions of Europe are predominantly Eastern Orthodox? and 14. In which portion of the Western Hemisphere do you find Roman Catholicism being the most dominant? In which portion of the Western Hemisphere do you find the Protestant faith being the most dominant? 15. Referencing Table 6.1, which Protestant denomination is dominant in the U.S.?

4 What is the most numerous Evangelical Protestant Church? What is the most numerous Mainline Protestant Church? 16. Roman Catholics in the United States are predominantly clustered in the and ; Evangelical Protestants are predominantly clustered in the. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) are predominantly clustered in. DISTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS AND BUDDHISTS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAJOR BRANCHES OF ISLAM AND BUDDHISM 17. What does the word Islam mean in Arabic? 18. Four countries outside of Southwest Asia (the Middle East) account for about 40 percent of the world s Muslims. They are,,, and. 19. There are two main branches of Islam -- and. The larger of the two is. There is also one other branch of Islam,, is found in Oman. 20. Name three countries where you would find the greatest clustering of Shiite Muslims:,, 21. What explains why there are large clusters of Muslims within European nations, such as France and Germany? 22. To what countries do many U.S. Muslims trace their ancestry? 23. Globally, where is Buddhism primarily clustered?

5 24. The three main branches of Buddhism are: a. - 56% and found mainly in,, and b. - 38% and found mainly in,,,, and c. - 6% and found mainly in and ; are also sometimes referred to as. 25. Why is it difficult to account for an exact number of Buddhists in the world today? a. b. DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNIC RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF HINDUISM AND OTHER ETHNIC RELIGIONS 26. Why do ethnic religions typically have more clustered distributions than universalizing religions? 27. What is the largest ethnic religion and where is it primarily found? 28. In Hinduism, what is the name given to the group with the largest number of adherents? To which god do they worship? The next largest group are followers of, a protective and destructive god.

6 29. People of religious faith in China often follow a combination of and or or other traditional Chinese practices. 30. Confucianism emphasizes the importance of public service, while Taoism emphasizes of life. 31. What is the fundamental belief of primal-indigenous religions? Two primal-indigenous religions are: and. 32. Folk religions, sometimes called, believe that. DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGIONS OTHER THAN THE MOST NUMEROUS ONES 33. Sikhism is clustered in. Founder: ; God was revealed as The One Supreme Being (or Creator); their holy book is 34. Juche is found in ; the founder was ; viewed sometimes as a government ideology or philosophy, not a religion 35. Most Spiritists are found in, and it is the belief that. 36. Nearly of the world s 14 million Jews live in the U.S. and another 2/5 live in. Judaism was the first recorded religion to promote monotheism. What is the difference between monotheism and polytheism? 37. Bahá í is a religion and found in and. One of their beliefs is to overcome the disunity of religions and the establishment of a universalizing faith through abolition of,, and prejudices.

7 38. Most adherents of Tenrikyo, originally a branch of, are found in. 39. Most adherents of Jainism are found in ; one of their most basic beliefs is that nonviolence and self-control are the means to achieve. 40. Shinto is primarily found in ; Cao Dai is clustered in ; Zoroastrianism is mainly found today in. Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Distinctive Distributions? ORIGINS OF CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM IN SOUTHWEST ASIA LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM 41. Where did Christianity originate and when? 42. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, a split developed in Christian beliefs and two separate churches developed: branch and branch. 43. When and how did Protestantism begin? How is Protestantism different than the Roman Catholic or Orthodox branches of Christianity? 44. The Five Pillars of Islam are: a. b. c. d.

8 e. 45. Which three religions all believe Adam to have been the first man and Abraham to be his descendant? 46. Why did Islam eventually split into two branches at the death of Muhammad? ORIGIN OF BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM IN SOUTH ASIA LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE ORIGIN OF BUDDHISM AND THE REASON THE ORIGIN OF HINDUISM IS UNKNOWN 47. What are the origins of Buddhism? 48. What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism? a. b. c. d. 49. In what ways are Mahayana and Theravada Buddhists different in their beliefs?

9 50. Hinduism has unknown origins. Archaeological evidence indicates that it may date back as far as 2500 B.C. to the Indus River Valley in present-day. Key texts and rituals date back 2,000 years and the earliest temples were constructed between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago. HISTORICAL DIFFUSION OF RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF DIFFUSION OF UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 51. All three hearths of the three largest universalizing religions are in. 52. In geographic terms, what is a missionary? Christianity first spread from its hearth (Judea) through diffusion by missionaries. It also spread throughout the Roman Empire through diffusion. 53. How did Christianity also spread through the process of hierarchical diffusion? 54. Through what type of diffusion has Christianity spread globally since the 1500s? 55. By what methods was Islam diffused? 56. What factors contributed to the diffusion of Islam to Indonesia? 57. What was the primary method by which Buddhism first diffused to China?

10 RECENT MIGRATION OF CHRISTIANS LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND DISTINCTIVE MIGRATION PATTERNS OF CHRISTIAN GROUPS IN MODERN TIMES 58. The largest migration flows of Christians are in and out of and the. 59. Why is Canada (except Québec) and the United States predominantly Protestant? Why is Roman Catholic dominate in the American southwest? 60. Why did the center of the Mormon faith move several times in the 19 th century and eventually settle in Utah around Salt Lake City? MIGRATION OF MUSLIMS AND JEWS LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND DISTINCTIVE MIGRATION PATTERNS OF MUSLIMS AND JEWS 61. attracts the largest number of Muslim migrants. The largest numbers of Muslims who migrate to Europe leave and head to, or leave and head to. 62. As the only country with a Jewish majority, is the destination for 73% of Jewish international migration. 63. Following the diaspora in A.D. 70, Jews were exiled from their homeland. Often they lived in the minority in various countries and were forced to live in isolated neighborhoods called. 64. Unlike other ethnic religions, what caused Judaism to spread to other countries?

11 Key Issue 3: Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? PLACES OF WORSHIP LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE PLACES OF WORSHIP IN VARIOUS RELIGIONS 65. For what reasons is the place of worship, the church, of such special importance to Christians? 66. Why does the pulpit in a mosque face toward Makkah? What is the purpose of a minaret? 67. Sikh worship in a place called a, while Jews go to a. Bahá í have built Houses of Worship on every continent to symbolize. 68. What is the primary purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 69. Since most of the important religious functions are likely to take place in individual homes, what is the function of a Hindu temple? RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS AND TOPONYMS LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE EXAMPLES OF RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS AND OF RELIGIOUS TOPONYMS 70. For what reasons were most utopian communities unsuccessful over time?

12 71. How was the design of colonial settlements affected by their religious beliefs? 72. Why are there a large percentage of Roman Catholic toponyms found in Québec and the U.S. Southwest? ADMINISTRATION OF SPACE LEARNING OUTCOME COMPARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION OF HIERARCHICAL AND LOCALLY AUTONOMOUS RELIGIONS 73. What is a hierarchical religion? Give an example. 74. What is the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic Church? 75. In geographic terms, what is meant by an autonomous religion? 76. Name three Protestant religions that have hierarchical structures --,, Name two Protestant religions that have autonomous structures and SACRED SPACE IN UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME EXPLAIN WHY PLACES ARE SACRED IN UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS 77. What seems to determine a sacred space in an ethnic religion?

13 What determines a sacred space in a universalizing religion? 78. What does it mean to make a pilgrimage? 79. Why does Buddhism have eight holy shrines? 80. Name the two holiest cities for Muslims -- and ; a pilgrimage for a Muslim is called a. THE LANDSCAPE IN ETHNIC RELIGIONS LEARNING OUTCOME ANALYZE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IN ETHNIC RELIGIONS 81. The natural features of India that are most likely to be the places of the holiest of shrines are and ; a pilgrimage for a Hindu is called a. These shrines are established by tradition, not by. 82. Why is the Ganges considered the holiest river in India? 83. What is cosmogony? 84. In what way do Muslims in Muslim-dominant countries view cemeteries differently than most Christians?

14 85. Why is cremation encouraged by the Chinese government? 86. What is the preferred method of disposing of bodies in the Hindu faith? What was the preferred method of disposing of bodies by ancient Zoroastrians? RELIGIOUS CALENDARS LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND THE ROLES OF HOLIDAYS AND CALENDARS IN VARIOUS RELIGIONS 87. The main purpose of holidays in universalizing religions is to celebrate events related to, rather than to the changing seasons of a particular place as is it for ethnic religions. 88. Islam uses a calendar, so Muslim holidays arrive in different seasons from generation to generation. 89. Not all Christians celebrate holidays on the same date as the Protestant and Roman Catholic branches calculate dates using the calendar, while Orthodox churches use the calendar. 90. Why is Judaism considered an ethnic religion because of its calendar, which is also lunar-based? 91. Considering the close ties that ethnic religions typically have to nature and to their physical environment, why might the solstice have special meaning?

15 Key Issue 4: Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? CHALLENGES FOR RELIGIONS IN SOUTH AND EAST ASIA LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND REASONS FOR GEOGRAPHIC CONFLICTS BETWEEN RELIGIOUS AND SECULAR CULTURAL GROUPS 92. What was the caste system as it was practiced in India? (FYI, the caste system is now outlawed, but it is still evident in many social interactions, especially in rural areas.) 93. The four castes were,,, and. Who were the Dalits, or Untouchables? 94. How was the Orthodox Church and others religions affected by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? 95. What was the effect of the fall of the Soviet Union on religion in Eastern Europe? 96. What Central Asian countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union are primarily Islamic today? CHALLENGES FOR RELIGIONS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHWEST ASIA LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF A FUNDAMENTALIST GROUP SUCH AS THE TALIBAN 97. In geographic terms, what is meant by fundamentalism?

16 98. Who was the Taliban and where have they been a major influence on society? 99. What are examples of the Taliban s attempts to enforce Islamic law? 100. Why did the Taliban destroy priceless artistic works from Afghanistan s ancient past? 101. Why have so many religious conflicts been fought for centuries over lands in the Southwest Asia as far back as the Middle Ages and even earlier? GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVES IN THE MIDDLE EAST LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND REASONS FOR CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST 102. After World War II, lands were set aside to create a Jewish homeland. The United Nations voted in 1947 to divide the UK s Palestine Mandate into two separate countries: one for and one for. The city of was supposed to be open to everyone and run by the UN In the decades that followed, Israel fought a series of four wars with its neighbors to preserve its independence. Not until the Camp David Accords was signed in 1979, did one of the neighbors,, officially recognize the right of Israel to exist The emerged as Israel s main opponent in the region, and were viewed by Egypt and Jordan as the rightful owners of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, as well as Palestine which they said included all of Israel. A stable peace has yet to be achieved as there is a power struggle between the Fatah and Hamas parties for control of the Palestinian cause. FYI Palestinians are considered a stateless nation.

17 JERUSALEM S CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHY LEARNING OUTCOME EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF JERUSALEM TO JEWS AND MUSLIMS 105. Why is Jerusalem especially holy to Jews? 106. What is a particularly important site for daily prayers for Jews in Jerusalem? 107. What is the most important Muslim site in Jerusalem? 108. Refer to the Debate It! section on page 225 to answer the following. According to Jews, what is one reason why the security fence is necessary? According to Palestinians, what is one reason why the segregation wall must come down?

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