Key Issue 1: Where Are the World s Religions Distributed? Pages

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1 Key Issue 1: Where Are the World s Religions Distributed? Pages Complete the following chart with notes: 4 Largest Religions Folk Religions Other Religions Unaffiliated % of world: % of world: % of world: % of world: 2. Define atheism: 3. Define agnosticism: 4. Define universalizing religion: 5. Define ethnic religion: 6. Note the relative diversity or homogeneity of religions in the following regions: Latin America: Europe/North America: Central Asia/SW Asia & N. Africa: East Asia: South Asia: SE Asia: Sub-Saharan Africa: 7. Give the percentage of the world s Christian population belonging to each of Christianity s three major branches. 8. What percent of European Christians are Orthodox and where is Eastern Orthodoxy distributed? 9. What percentage of Latin American Christians are Roman Catholic? 1

2 10. Use the text and maps on p. 189 to complete the chart with the location and concentration of branches of Christianity in the United States. Branch of Christianity Region(s) of Predominance/Notable Concentrations Mainline Protestant Lutheran Southern Baptist Mormon Roman Catholic 11. Islam predominates in Central Asia and SW Asia/North Africa; however, most of the world s Muslims live in four countries outside these regions. Name these 4 countries. 12. Give the percentage of each of Islam s two greatest branches: Sunni & Shiite (Shia). 13. Only in six countries do Shiite Muslims number more than Sunni. What are they? 14. Complete this chart dividing Buddhism into its three main branches. % of Global Buddhist Branch Regions of Predominance Population 15. Why are Buddhists difficult to count? 2

3 16. Where are Hindus concentrated? What percent of all Hindus live there? 17. Where are most of the rest of Hindus? 18. What does it mean for a religion to be syncretic? 19. Make a note or two (that seem of geographic interest) about each of the ethnic religions listed below. Confucianism: Judaism: Taoism: Baha i: Primal-Indigenous: Tenrikyo: Animism: Jainism: Sikhism: Shinto: Juche: Cao Dai: 3

4 Spiritism: Zoroastrianism: Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Distinctive Distributions? Pages Universalizing religions tend to have places of origin and patterns of diffusion. Ethnic religions tend to have origins and diffusion. 2. Complete the chart below describing the origins and branches of the major universalizing religions. Christianity Islam Buddhism Year of Origin Founder Place of Origin Major Branches & Main Belief of Each Branch 3. Buddhism is built around Four Noble Truths as taught by the Buddha. Summarize them. 4

5 4. What two ancient peoples beliefs blended to form Hinduism? 5. Give three explanations for the diffusion of Christianity. 6. Explain three ways in which Islam spread. 7. Give two reasons for the expansion of Buddhism. 8. Which religious adherents are more likely to migrate? Which are less likely to migrate? 9. Explain how migration has affected the distribution of Christian branches in each case: a. Protestant majorities in most of US and Canada: b. Southwest USA: c. Salt Lake Valley, Utah: d. Quebec: 10. Which countries or regions have attracted the largest number of Muslim migrants in recent years? 11. What was the diaspora? 12. How were most Jews treated as they lived among other nationalities? 5

6 13. What is the origin of the term ghetto? Key Issue 3: Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Pages Why is the church prominent in Christianity? 2. Why do many Christian churches vary in architectural and construction style? 3. Identify four specific, visible features of a typical mosque. 4. What is the most important Sikh gurdwara? How does it influence other gurdwaras? 5. What is a synagogue used for? 6. In what shape are Baha i Houses of Worship built? 7. What is the religious purpose of a Buddhist pagoda? 8. How are pagodas evidence of Buddhism s diffusion? 9. Formal worship in a pagoda is not typical. Where does it usually take place? 6

7 10. How are Hindu temples different than both churches and mosques? 11. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the religious settlements indicated. Utopian Settlements Salt Lake City, Utah Puritans 12. Define hierarchical religion: 13. List the Roman Catholic hierarchy, indicating geographic region and leader who heads it. 14. Why are parishes in Latin America so much larger than in Europe? 15. Describe an autonomous religion: 16. In the absence of a hierarchy, what is the only formal organization of territory in Islam? 17. What holds Islam together? 18. Complete the chart below to categorize other religions and denominations. Autonomous Religions Hierarchical Religions 7

8 19. What is a pilgrimage? 20. Read the section about Sacred Space and make notes on three case studies: Buddhism, Islam & Hinduism. Holy Sites Buddhist (p. 212) Islamic (p. 213) Hindu (p. 214) 21. Give three examples of the ties between Hinduism and the physical geography of India. 22. Give at least three examples of how religions have incorporated beliefs of cosmogyny. 23. Christian practice burial of the dead. Complete the flow chart below to indicate the history of this practice. ê 8

9 ê 24. Complete the chart below with brief notes on the disposal of the dead in ways other than burial. Hindus Parsis Micronesia 25. Complete the chart below regarding religious calendars. What is the most prominent feature of the calendar in an ethnic religion? What is the principle purpose of the calendar in a universalizing religion? 26. Why do different Christian branches celebrate Easter on different days? 27. How is this similar to Buddhism s major holidays? 28. How is the Jewish calendar typical of the ethnic use of the calendar? 29. Both the Jewish and the Muslims use a lunar calendar, yet in a different way and with very different results. Explain. 9

10 30. What is the solstice? Key Issue 4: Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? Pages What aspect of Hinduism has clashed with Western/modern ideas? 2. What western groups criticized this aspect? Why? 3. How has the Indian government responded to this issue? 4. How did each of the following Communist governments attempt to limit the influence of religion? Soviet Union: China: 5. What happened, and is continuing to happen, in each of the following regions of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union since the fall of Communism in the 1990s? Complete the chart below by adding THREE more countries to each category and then describing what is going on at the present time in that region. Historic Catholic Regions Historic Muslim Regions Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Currently Currently 10

11 6. What is fundamentalism? 7. In what ways did the Taliban government of Afghanistan raise conflicts with Western/modern ideas after it took control of the country in 1996? 8. What three religions are in constant conflict over the land in the Middle East? 9. What was the military campaign by the Christians to recapture their Holy Land from the Muslims? 10. How did WWI and WWII shape control and policy in the Palestine region? 11. Complete the chart below regarding the perspective on the Holy Land. Israeli Perspective Palestinian Perspective 12. Complete the chart below regarding Jerusalem. Judaism s Jerusalem Islam s Jerusalem 11

12 12

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