On Your Desk. Religion Research Project Unit 5 Notebook

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1 On Your Desk Religion Research Project Unit 5 Notebook

2 UNIT 5: Religion Chapter 7

3 Key Question: What Role does Religion Play in Culture?

4 Question 1 What is religion? What is Secularism? Define and explain both terms. What is the difference between monotheistic, polytheistic, and Animistic religions? Define and give examples of these terms.

5 What is a reason for the decline in Christianity in the U.S, but a an increase in Non- Christian/secular beliefs?

6 What religion will increase the most in followers by 2050?

7 Religion: A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. Perceived ultimate priorities : a list of things a follower should do and ways a follower should behave.

8 Classifications of Religions Monotheistic religions worship a single deity (god). EX: Christianity, Islam, Judaism

9 Polytheistic religions: worship more than one deity (god), even thousands. Ex: Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism

10 Animistic religions the belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth. EX: Native American Tribes

11 Indigenous Religions Belief systems practiced and passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group. Indigenous = produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment. EX: Folk Cultures (Ex. Native American Tribes)

12 Tay Ninh is where Vietnam s indigenous religions Caodaism is located.

13 Ethnic religions religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts.

14

15 Shamanism Ethnic religion where communities follow a Shaman(a religious leader/teacher) Strongest in Africa, and the Amazon and in parts of Mexico and Guatemala

16 Originated: Hinduism (ethnic religion) In Indus River Valley(Pakistan) over 4000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation, many deities Sacred Text: Vedas Sacred Sites: Ganges River (India) Diffusion: Through South Asia and into Southeast Asia

17 Caste System The strict social segregation on ancestry Specifically in India s Hindu society. Recently, lessening influence

18 Four Main Classes - Varnas

19 Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, India: Towers with stepped sides and carved in faces of deities

20 Originated: Confucianism In China about 2500 years ago Core Belief: Real meaning of life lays in the present, service to one s fellow humans Founder: Confucius Sacred Text: Confucian Classics Diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia

21 Judaism (ethnic) Originated: In Southwest Asia about years ago. Core Beliefs: Oldest monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) Sacred Text: Torah Founder: Abraham Sacred Sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River Diffusion: Into European cities during the Diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years

22 Diaspora(To Disperse) Describes the forced or voluntary dispersal of a large scale of people from their homeland to a new place.

23 Jewish Diaspora The original Diaspora occurred after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in CE. Jews dispersed north into Central Europe and across North Africa and Spain.

24

25 Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the Diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land. Opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies. Advocated the return of Jews to Israel.

26 Universalizing religions religions that actively seek converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal.

27

28 Originated: Buddhism (universalizing) Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. Core Beliefs: Anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment Founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) Sacred Sites: Stupas Diffusion: Most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia

29 Christianity (universalizing) Originated: In Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life Sacred text: Bible Founder: Jesus (son of God) Sacred Sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem Diffusion: Into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.

30 Primary Branches of Christianity Roman Catholic(1054) Largest, 830 million, Vatican City, Pope 21% of U.S Christians Eastern Orthodox Christianity (1054) Eastern Europe & Russia Protestant Christians (16 th Century) 25% all Christians Globally 46.6% Of Christians in the U.S

31 Religious Landscapes in the United States Identify 3 patterns and explain reasons behind both.

32 Islam (universalizing) Originated: Mecca, Saudi Arabia about 1500 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic (Allah), revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. Sacred Text: Qu ran Founder: Muhammad (prophet) Sacred Sites: Mecca(Saudi Arabia), Medina(Saudi Arabia), Jerusalem(Israel) Diffusion: Across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia

33

34 Sharia law: The system of Islamic law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qur'an. Ex: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen

35 Theocracy A government run by a religion EX: Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City

36 Question 2 Explain the divide between Sunni and Shi ite Muslims. Why did the religion split and what are some of the differences in religious practice. How this divide does affects Islamic countries today? (ex. Any current conflicts?)

37 Major split in Islam Shortly after Muhammad s death(632 CE), split into 1. Sunni Muslims (the majority, 85%) Bangladesh and Pakistan 2. Shi ite Muslims (15%, Direct Descendents) Caliphate (direct successor) Iraq, Afghanistan, and Iran

38 Do We Look Like Terrorists to You? 1. Explain what happened to Irum Ali that reflects many Americans reactions/attitudes towards Muslim-Americans. 2. Why do many Americans view Islam as a religion of violence? Explain. 3. How can we change negative perceptions about Islam in America? 4. What do many Americans assume about a Muslim woman wearing a Hijab? How is this different than the reality of the situation? 5. How many believers of Islam are their globally and what region is their almost a billion Muslims? 6. What is the difference between a Chador, Hijab, and a Burka? 7. What is the reaction of Muslim-Americans to the myth that Islam promotes terrorism? 8. What are some of the motivations behind why some Muslims are turning towards violence and listening to terrorist leaders? Are there any connections between these motivations and the United States? 9. Explain TWO encouraging signs of acceptance of Islam in America presented in the Article? 10. On the choropleth map on the last page, answer questions 1, 4, 6, 9, and 10 below the map.

39 Sacred Sites: Places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning.

40 Pilgrimage: Purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.

41 Roman Catholic: Vatican City Sacred site

42 Hinduism: Ganges River

43 Death Along the Ganges River W1PvMqo

44 The Kaaba (Islam's most sacred mosque) Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

45 Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism (Western Wall) Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) Islam (Dome of the Rock)

46

47

48

49 Buddhist Temples/Shrines Stupas: Dome or tower, bell-shaped structures that protect burial mounds-a type of Buddhist shrine. (Nepal & Tibet) Pagoda: tower style with several levels that features winged roofs (East Asia)

50 Buddhist Stupas : 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.

51

52

53

54

55

56 Protestant churches less ornate focus on simple worship

57

58 Muslim Mosques: Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.

59

60

61

62

63

64 Synagogues: no typical style Western/Wailing Wall in Jerusalem most sacred

65 Western Wall, Jerusalem

66

67

68

69

70 Question 3 What are sacred sites? Explain and give examples of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism s impacts on the landscape.

71

72 Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism

73 Religious fundamentalism: A return to the basics of their faith found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Fear change, modernization, and loss of influence. Fear mass media/education undermining teachings

74 Fundamentalism Christian Bible prophesies a second coming Christ Jewish Jewish people are granted unalienable rights to the entire land do Israel. Muslim Reject modernity and the western influence that has perverted their society

75 Religious extremism: Fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. Found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. EX: Jewish extremists argue that Palestinians have 3 choices: flee, accept Jewish rule, or fight.

76 Jihad "to struggle Two commonly accepted meanings of jihad: An inner spiritual struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. OR the idea of an armed struggle against persecution and oppression. Islamic extremists have declared an Islamic holy war against the West

77 Realities The Qur'an does not sanction war or killing (except for self-defense) and does not sanction suicide. Extremists distort the basic tenets of the religion to justify the unjustifiable (ex. Suicide bombers).

78 ISIS Explained in 3 Minutes 1Chji6o

79 Question 4 Explain the difference between an intrafaith conflict and an interfaith conflict.what is the African transition zone explain and give examples of current or recent armed conflicts in the zone.

80 Interfaith Boundaries: Boundaries between the world s major faiths. Example: India and Pakistan: Pakistan (once part of India) and India have been conflicting over control of the northern territory known as Jammu and Kashmir. What two religions in conflict?

81 Nigeria (Islam vs. Christianity): Islam in northern regions and Christianity prevails in the south. Africa: Christian-Muslim interfaith boundary

82 Question 5 Write a summary of the Israeli and Palestinian conflict (at least a paragraph). Write a summary of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia (at least a paragraph). Explain if these are intrafaith or interfaith conflicts.

83 Intrafaith Boundaries: Boundaries within a single major religion. Examples: Iraq: Sunni Islam vs. Shiite Islam After fall of Sunni Gov.(Saddam Hussein), Sunnis and Shiites war for control of Iraq. United States: Christian Fundamentalism and liberal Christianity Political cultural issues: evolution and abortion

84 Northern Ireland: The Troubles Political and Religious violent conflict in Northern Ireland( ) Conflict was between minority Catholics and majority Protestants.

85

86 British colonialism deposited large numbers of Protestants in traditionally Catholic Northern Ireland. Catholics wanted Northern Ireland to reunify under the Irish government Protestants wanted to remain under the control of the British

87 Question 11 CURRENT EVENT: Locate a current events article (occurring within the past year) from a newspaper, news site (ex. NPR or BBC), or news magazine that relates to religion. The event must be outside the United States. You will write two paragraphs: Paragraph one (4-6 Sentences) will explain the event the who, what, where, why and when. Paragraph two (4-6 Sentences) will draw connections between the event and FIVE Terms from Unit 5.

88 Rise of Secularism Secularism Indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. Found in Western Democracies : separation of government and religion In 2014, 22.5 % of U.S. population, up from 16% in 2007

89 Where is secularism on the rise and NOT of the rise? Explain

90

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