Chapter 7: North Africa and Southwest Asia Part One: pages Teacher Notes

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1 I. Major Geographic Qualities Chapter 7: North Africa and Southwest Asia Part One: pages Teacher Notes 1) Several of the world s greatest civilizations based in its river valleys and basins 2) Cultural Hearths: ideas, innovations, technology spread to the world 3) Home of Judaism, Christianity, Islam` 4) Islam, the last of the religions expanded rapidly and far 5) Drought and variable precipitation dominate the region 6) Enormous oil/gas reserves provide great wealth and worsen poverty 7) Boundaries are volatile 8) Conflicts over water and supplies threaten the region 9) Middle East is the heart of the realm 10) Religion, ethnicity, and culture conflicts bring instability and strife II. Defining the Realm ( ) A. Dry World very dry, but people live around areas of water Dry/arid climate prevails throughout the realm Exceptions: Peripheral regions of Turkey Northwestern section of Iran Oases Several great river valleys The majority of the people in this realm live not in the dry arid regions, but around water resources, such as: The Nile Valley B. The Middle East C. Arab World Mediterranean Sea Euphrates and Tigris Basin (Hydraulic Civilization) Lower mountain slopes of Iran, south of the Caspian Sea Middle East reflection of western prejudices only applies to a portion of this region (Arabian Peninsula) based upon language D. Islamic World 1

2 Muhammad s teachings spread far and have powerful influences. Language: (Not in the text) Relates to language as a cultural feature of this realm Arabic is the dominant language in 16 States of the realm. In Non-Arab States, indigenous languages dominate Turkey - Turkish Iran - Farsi Israel - Hebrew Niger - French III. Hearths of Culture two of the world s first cultural hearths ( ) Geographic Terms: Cultural Geography: studies spatial aspects of human culture Cultural Hearths: crucibles of civilizations, source of ideas, innovations & ideologies Cultural Diffusion: spreading of these cultural ideas and innovations Cultural Environment: the dominate culture of a region dictates/creates the overall culture Cultural Ecology: the relationship between human societies and natural environments General Information on Region: Great strides in domesticating veggies, animals, science, health, math, astronomy, engineering, metallurgy 1. Mesopotamia - World s first states Land amidst the rivers Tigris & Euphrates Fertile Crescent Agricultural hearth of innovative farmers, used irrigation. The knowledge from this agricultural hearth diffused from Mesopotamia across southern Turkey into Syria and the Mediterranean. Hydraulic Civilization Theory: cities who control water/irrigation control others 2. Egypt/Nile Egyptians used Nile for protection, trade and irrigation 3. Indus Valley Cultural and commercial ties to Mesopotamia 2

3 4. Decline and Decay: Climate changes, overuse, overpopulation, etc. IV. Stage for Islam ( ) A. Introduction: Arab Peninsula escaped invasions Arab world was in disarray Muhammad: , Revelations from God in 611 B. Faith Mecca: spiritual center of Islam Islam: political, values, way of life, unit of Arabs and mobilized overnight! Combined Judaism and Christianity Muhammad was the final prophet Beliefs: what is Earthly & worldly is profane; only Allah is pure; Allah s will is absolute; Allah is omniscient (all knowledge) and omnipotent (powerful); all humans live in Allah s world and are waiting for His judgment Five Pillars of Faith: Repeated expressions of the Creed Frequent prayer Month of daytime fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage to Mecca (2012 October, 11 days earlier each year) C. Arab-Islamic Empire D. Diffusion: Islam spread rapidly by AD 1000 (see page 352 MAP) Spatial Diffusion: the way ideas, inventions, and cultural practices propagate through a population in a given space and time. General Points: - Arabs overshadowed Europeans in Architecture, Math, Science, institutions of higher learning in many cities (Baghdad, Cairo, Toledo) - Crusades were carried out in response today the word is an insult 200 years - Stopped when Mongols entered Europe, them Islam pushed again Ottoman Empire 3

4 V. Islam Divided ( ) A. Introduction: Division over who was to be successor or the Caliph Sunnis anyone of the faith who was a good leader (85 %) Shi ites a blood line had to be followed, his cousin Ali B. Strength of Shi ism Persia (Iran) was the only to adopt Shiism When Shiism emerged again in Iran in 1970s when it overthrew the secular govt (US backed) govt. of the Shah (King) this action invigorated world Shiite communities C. Religious Revivalism: A cry against western corruption of their Islamic ways Placing religious leaders in charge of govts War with Iraq became a Holy War (originally over borders) Much internal conflict between moderates and militants Osama Bin Laden followed this path, but his greatest goal was to return Saudi Arabia to an Islamic state. Greatest struggle between Israel and Islamic world D. Muslim vs. Muslim: Militancy increased and attacked moderates Mullahs were given more power than governments E. Other Religions Christians invaded Muslim world (Crusades) frequently to retake what had been Christian areas, which had been Jewish previously. F. Ottoman Aftermath Named after Osman I, in Turkey (1453) far reaching empire (Eastern Europe, Persia, Mesopotamia, North Africa) Four centuries of rule, then lost power in Eastern Europe, then Russian Europeans took the lands they conquered (Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen) Artificial boundaries in the sand, violated tribal customs 4

5 VI. Power and Peril of Oil ( ) Two biggest obstacles: Israel and Oil A. Dimensions: 77% of world s oil from this region Major Oil Producing Nations: Saudi Arabia (267 B), Iraq (114), United Arab Emirates (101), Kuwait (97), Iran (91) [Canada may be the greatest of all but its oil is in the Tar Sands and is too difficult and expensive to recover and process] Venezuela (80), Russia (60), US (40), Libya/Mexico, China, Ecuador (30) B. Foreign Invasions: - Middle East nations were unable to exploit resources, they needed Western help which brought conflict. - Haves vs Have-nots = internal conflict - US orchestrated covert operations to create the Iran we know today. C. Impact of Oil: High Incomes for states and people Modernization infrastructure Industrialization seeking to diversify Intra-Realm Migration Shiites and Palestinians moved into areas to find work, throwing balance off. Inter-Realm Migration Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka working for lower Wages Regional Disparities extreme differences within nations of modern/old, rich/poor, etc. (Mercedes vs Camel) Foreign Investment Arab state investments intertwined in global matters 5

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