RELIGION APPLICATIONS

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1 RELIGION APPLICATIONS COUNTRY/REGION: NIGERIA (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: 110 million ppl., Multi-lingual, Muslims (Islam 55 million) in the north/christianity (37 million) in the south (along with local traditional religions 12 million) Islamic majority calling for Islamic state and to join (ICO Islamic Conference Organization) Christians of the south threatening to secede from the country unsuccessful once before. Has served as a model example of countries with two or more major religious populations. COUNTRY/REGION: SUDAN (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Muslim north (60% of population)/christian-traditional south Sharia religious laws (harsh Islamic Law Code) were imposed on the entire country. Battle continues over religious beliefs and what should be imposed on the entire population. COUNTRY/REGION: THE AFRICAN HORN (NE COAST) (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Amharic (Coptic) Christians in Ethiopia, Muslims in Eritrea and Somalia Christians had control over region until revolution overthrew military dictatorship. Region of Eritrea seceded from Ethiopia. Ethiopia still multicultural with large Muslim populations along Somalia to the east. COUNTRY/REGION: SOUTH ASIA (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Pakistan (Islamic), India (Hindu and variety of other religions), Sikhism (reaction to Hindu and Islam) 20 million followers w/ 90%+ located in India Conflict over territory along India/Pakistan border (Jammu and Kashmir)..Hinduism and Islam mixed

2 (SOUTH ASIA CONTINUED) #1Sikhs push for independence (India dominated by Hindu and Muslims most powerful religious minority)---want a separate state to be named Khalistan (NW India) #2 Battle over Holy Shrine at Ayodhya in the State of Uttar Pradesh. Building housing a temple and mosque on a hill that was holy to both Hindu and Muslims--ruled to be a Hindu site (birthplace of god Rama) and threatened to tear down the mosque portion of the site. #3 Rise of Hindu fundamentalism to overpower Muslim and Sikh religions rise ( Save Hinduism ) marches and militancy associated with other religions now being used by Hindu gaining political power (viewed by many as contradictory to Hindu beliefs of non-aggression) Changed the name of Bombay to Mumbai (pre-colonial name named after a Hindu goddess) and the city of Madras changed its name as well further intensifying tensions between Hindu and Sikh and Muslims. #4 Conflict may arise in Bangladesh between Hindu and Muslims if fundamentalist groups of either religion extend into the region. COUNTRY/REGION: FMR. USSR (SOVIET UNION) (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Eastern Orthodox (Russia), Islam (Central and SW Asia) #1 Break-up of the Soviet Union led to a wide array of religious groups including two major religious realms (Eastern Orthodox and Islam). #2 Soviet Communists wanted to create an atheist state from the Black Sea to China Aremenians (Christians) and Azerbajani (Shiite Muslims) were discouraged from practicing. An exclave of Christian Armenia (isolated) was created and an enclave of Muslim Azerbajan (within) see 13-4 on p. 186 #2 problems exist b/w Christians and Muslims in Armenia and Azerbajan #3 Due to Soviet communist rule, Islam was not allowed in Central Asia. After the collapse, Islam rose again quickly. Turkmenestan (Sunni Islam) #4 Pockets of Russians were displaced after USSR collapse. Rise of Eastern Orthodox beliefs causing cultural conflict within the newly independent republics. #5 Kazakhstan has interfaith boundary between Christianity (north) and Islam (south).

3 COUNTRY/REGION: EUROPE (FMR. YUGOSLAVIA) (mostly interfaith with some intrafaith boundaries) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Catholic (North and along Adriatic coast), Orthodox (South/East) and Islam (pockets throughout Sarajevo (Bosnia), Kosovo (Serbia) and Rep. of Macedonia) Intrafaith boundary b/w Orthodox and Catholic churches Muslims caught in the middle. Ethnic cleansing of the Muslims. Fall of Communism lead to split of Yugoslavia s cultural groups. #1 Slovenia split peacefully. #2 Croatia split through warfare. #3 Focus on civil war in Bosnia (Croats, Muslims, and Serbs) country further divided through assistance of UN #4 Kosovo Serbian nationalists oppressing Muslims. Serbian Leader Slobodan Milosevic was defeated in an election which helped bring about peace through the help of US forces. #5 Uprisings in Macedonia similar to one s mentioned above. COUNTRY/REGION: SRI LANKA (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: 70% Buddhists. Hindu population in the north (Dravidians) Hindu fundamentalists pushing for independence Northern Hindu offered increased autonomy which led to a truce however extremists still pushing for independence. COUNTRY/REGION: SE and SW Asia (interfaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: #1 Islam (small populations) and Catholic Philippines #2 Jewish Israeli state and Islamic Palestinian stats following WWI and WWII conflicts. #2 Increasing Jewish population in Jewish state drove Palestinians out leading to many Palestinians to become refugees in a land that was once theirs. Palestinians concentrated in West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Golan Heights. Islamic minorities in both instances pushing for their own independent states.

4 COUNTRY/REGION: NORTHERN IRELAND (intrafaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Protestant majority and Catholic minority English Protestants immigrated into Ireland during colonial period and settled northeastern region. Catholics in Northern Ireland left unprotected when the nation of Ireland gained its independence from British rule. COUNTRY/REGION: ISLAMIC REALM (intrafaith boundary) MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Sunni majority and Shiite minority Iran (Shiite)-Iraq (Sunni) conflict Shiites make up only a small percentage of Muslim population but claim to be the true followers of Muhammad. COUNTRY/REGION: CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTALISM MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: Europe (Roman Catholics); US (Protestants) Roman Catholic Church refuses to give in to a changing society (birth control, family planning, and role of women) Protestants believe that character in society need to be brought into alignment with Biblical principles prayer in public schools, teaching of creationism, ban on abortion, laws against homosexuality issues. Known politically as the Religious Right COUNTRY/REGION: ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM MAKE-UP OF POPULATION: How strict to follow the Qu ran Malaysia government enacted Sharia law which enraged the Chinese and other minorities in the region Indonesia fundamentalism on the rise among rural peoples untouched by the changing society. Iran Shah tried to limit power of imans (fundamentalists) which led to his overthrow. Replaced by an ayatollah (supreme religious leader). Women now placed under new restrictions (headgear, veils, and long robes).

5 (ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM CONT) Afghanistan Taliban regime enacted the strictest fundamentalist beliefs/policies. Destroy all statues of human forms, Hindu followers to wear markers, and women to wear head coverings. (religious Islamic holy war against the West ) Osama bin Laden terrorist attacks against the West (US) traced to a form of Islam. Algeria Islamic Republic caused a number of foreigners to be killed. Elections canceled due to chance of a conservative Muslim political party poised to win over the corrupt Islamic regime. Led to Islamic fundamentalists to challenge government everywhere.

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