Middle East Regional Review

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1 Middle East Regional Review Foundations-600 BCE Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)- to about 10,000 years ago Nomadic, Hunter-Gatherers Adapted to environment- use of fire, developed stone tools Summarize the world until 5000 years ago Neolithic (New Stone Age)-10,000 to 5,000 years ago Development of agriculture was a turning point shift in gender roles-men farm; women care for children Food Surplus-> Trade and labor specialization (pottery and metal tools) Mesopotamia ( BCE) Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Modern Iraq) City-state ruled by theocracy Social status based on land or skill (aristocrats and artisans above peasants) Innovations: wheel, plow, irrigation and drainage systems, # system based on 60, writing (cuneiform) Code of Hammurabi- 1 st law code Phoenician: Alphabet Israel: Judaism, 1 st Monotheistic religion Summarize the Middle East from BCE Egypt ( BCE) Nile River Valley Ruled by Pharaoh God-King Pyramids were tombs for Pharaohs Mummification: belief in rebirth Innovations: Geometry, anatomy, and 24-hour day Regional trade with Nubia 600 BCE-600 CE Achaemenid (Persian) Empire ( BCE) Cyrus the Great expanded territory from Mediterranean to India Tolerance of religious and linguistic minorities Zoroastrianism Centralized bureaucracy (tax codes and monetary system) Royal Road increased trade and communication Prospered from Silk Road Trade Conquered by Alexander the Great Summarize the Middle East from 600 BCE-600 CE 600 CE-1450 Rise of Islam Centers of power, trade and culture move south to the Arabian Peninsula (Mecca and Medina) The Prophet Muhammad established Islam around 630, spread through conquest and trade

2 Umayyad Dynasty (7 th -8 th Century) Dar-al-Islam included territory in North Africa and Southern Spain Sunni/Sh ia split and civil war in 680 Tolerance of all monotheistic religions, but Arab Muslims were exempted from taxes. Summarize the Middle East from 600 CE Abbasid Dynasty (8 th -13th century) Golden Age of Muslim Culture: Preserved classical literature through translation, introduced Indian numeral system to Mediterranean Center of Indian ocean trade network (China to Africa) Fought European Christians for control of the Holy Land Ottoman Empire (13 th century-1922) Captured Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453; key trade line between east and west Efficiently governed by the Sultan (Suleiman the Magnificent) Summarize the Middle East from Safavid Dynasty (16 th -18 th Century) Sh ia Muslims (Ottomans were Sunni) led by a shah Known for their artistic achievements (carpets and miniature paintings) Very little change in the Ottoman or Persian empires or kingdoms in the Arabian Peninsula After construction of Suez Canal, Egypt unofficially ruled by Britain Summarize the Middle East from Present Arab-Israeli Conflicts (1918-Present) Balfour declaration created a Jewish homeland in Palestine Recognition of Israel in 1948 increased tensions Numerous wars over Israel( Six days War, Yom Kippur War) Peace aggrements haven t lasted (Camp David Accords, Oslo Accords) Summarize the Middle East from Present Oil (1905-Present) Western Companies established infrastructure for oil industry Resources were nationalized after World War II Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Fundamentalism Conservative Islamic sects have developed in the 20 th century 1979 Iranian revolution led by sh ia Ayatollah Khomeini Conservative Sunni movements led to al-qaeda and ISIS

3 Places to know for the WHAP Exam: Middle East Geographic Features Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (You will have to draw these in) Nile River (You will have to draw this in) Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Arabian Peninsula Suez Canal Places to know Egypt Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Iran (Persian and Safavid) Israel Istanbul Mecca Baghdad

4 Regional SPICE Chart: Middle East Social Political Interaction w/ Environment Culture Economic Beginning- 600 BCE 600 BCE-600 CE Present

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