The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restored peace to China in between periods of chaos, civil war, and disorder.

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1 China Reunified The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restored peace to China in between periods of chaos, civil war, and disorder. China Reunified Sui Dynasty Grief dynasty known for unifying China under one emperor 1

2 China Reunified (cont.) Tang Dynasty tried to create a stable economy by giving land to peasants restored civil service exams for government positions brought peace to northwestern China and extended its borders to include Tibet China Reunified (cont.) Song Dynasty ruled during a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement moved the capital to Hangzhou returned to Confucianism ideals was eventually overthrown by Mongols 2

3 China Reunified (cont.) The Chinese economy grew in the period from the Sui dynasty to the Song dynasty as agriculture, manufacturing, and trade flourished. Technological advances led to development of steel and gunpowder, and the Silk Road was renewed as a major trade route. Sui Dynasty is also know as the dynasty. What is the civil service? Why Exams? Who was overthrown by Mongols? 3

4 China Reunified (cont.) The Mongols were a pastoral people from present-day Mongolia. In 1206 Genghis Khan was elected the ruler of the Mongols. He conquered surrounding areas, creating the largest land empire in history. 4

5 China Reunified (cont.) Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered the Song rulers and established the Yuan dynasty in China. Kublai Khan established his capital at Khanbalik, in what is now Beijing. The Mongols were successful rulers and won the support of many Chinese people. 5

6 China Reunified (cont.) Painting was an important art form during imperial China. Influenced by Daoism, landscape painting reached its height. The golden age of Chinese literature occurred during the Tang and Ming dynasties. The invention of the printing press helped to make literature more available. 6

7 Who was Kublai Khan? What was the golden age of literature? What is the picture on the right? Why is it significant? Emergence of Japan Early Japan was unified by emperors and then military leaders. 7

8 Emergence of Japan (cont.) Prince Shōtoku Taishi tried to unify the clans of Japan. He emulated the Chinese system of government and established centralized power. After Shōtoku Taishi s death, power fell into the hands of the Fujiwara clan. A new capital was established at Nara and the emperor began to call himself the Son of Heaven. Emergence of Japan (cont.) The aristocrats were able to retain their power and the national government lost influence. In 794 the capital was moved again to Heian-kyo, present-day Kyōto. The government had little centralized power, so the aristocratic families sought the protection of samurai. 8

9 Emergence of Japan (cont.) The samurai lived by a warrior code known as Bushido, the way of the warrior. Aristocratic Japanese families were constantly warring with each other until Minamoto Yoritomo defeated several rivals and set up a centralized government under the control of a shogun. The shogunate system worked well until the invasion of the Mongols. The Japanese under Taishi tried to adopt a system similar to the? Japanese warriors followed the code? Warring stopped after the unification under the? 9

10 Emergence of Japan (cont.) The power of the local aristocrats the daimyo increased, and central authority disappeared. Farming provided the basis of the economy in early Japan. During the Kamakura period, trade and manufacturing developed as Japan began exporting raw materials, paintings, and swords. Emergence of Japan (cont.) Japanese religion was centered on the worship of spirits and became known as Shinto. Other Japanese people practiced Buddhism. In Japanese art and architecture, landscapes were the most important means of expressions. 10

11 India After the Guptas Muslim conquerors took control of most of the Indian subcontinent. India After the Guptas (cont.) After the Gupta Empire collapsed, no central authority replaced it, and India was divided into a great number of warring states. 11

12 Chat No fixed Questions India After the Guptas (cont.) In the tenth century, rebellious Turkish slaves founded the Islamic state of Ghazna. In 997 Mahmūd of Ghazna began attacking Hindu kingdoms to the southeast. 12

13 India After the Guptas (cont.) Mahmūd s forces defeated the Rajputs and extended Muslim power to India, creating a a sultanate of Delhi. Muslim rulers in India maintained strict separation of Muslims and Hindus. India After the Guptas (cont.) Muslim rulers soon realized that there were too many Hindus to convert them all to Islam. They accepted the need to tolerate religious differences, although they still imposed Islamic customs on the Hindu society. 13

14 India After the Guptas (cont.) As the sultanate of Delhi declined, India was invaded by Timur Lenk, a ruthless Mongol ruler. He massacred as many as 100,000 Hindu prisoners at the gates of the city. India After the Guptas (cont.) Timur Lenk s death in 1405 rid India and Asia of a tyrannical ruler, but peace did not last long. The Moguls and Portuguese sought to gain influence in the region. 14

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