Warmup. What does Islam mean? Submission to the will of Allah

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1 Warmup What does Islam mean? Submission to the will of Allah

2 Agenda Warmup Is this in Africa? Game PPT & Notes Test = November 29 th (after Thanksgiving) Homework: Mongol Empire Notes PPT is on my website

3 Game Time! Materials = notebook paper, pen/pencil, eyeballs, brains Number your paper 1 10 I m going to show you a series of 10 images You will write Yes or No if you think those images come from Africa or not

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14 Results! 1) Yes Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania 2) Yes Port Louis in Mauritius 3) Yes Slums 4) Yes - poor woman and child 5) Yes South African National Soccer Team 6) Yes McDonalds in Nigeria 7) Yes Johannesburg, South Africa 8) Yes child soldier in Somalia 9) Yes AIDS patients in a hospital 10) Yes school in Nigeria

15 Discuss How many of you said between 1 3 of the images were from Africa? 4-7? 8-10? What surprised you about any of the images?

16 North and Central African Societies

17 Hunter-Gatherer Societies Oldest form of social organization in the world began in Africa Relied on hunting and gathering for survival There are still hunter-gatherer societies today Africa South America Asia

18 Efe AY-fay Hunters and gatherers Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo Small nomadic group, all related and own their own grass & brush shelters Efe women are gathers, men/boys are the hunters

19 Efe Group leader is a respected male (father, uncle, father-in-law), but does not act like a chief (does not give orders) Disagreements are settled through discussion. If conflict is still not resolved one member can decide to leave Daily life not governed by formal written laws, but logical guidelines

20 Bayaka Bayaka People

21 Stateless Societies Family organization is central to African society Organized into lineage = believe they are descendants of a common ancestor (including past and future generations) Strong loyalty to one another This political system was common in sub-saharan Africa before the arrival of the Muslims and Europeans

22 Stateless Societies South of the Sahara, African groups developed a system of governing based on lineage Stateless society = lineage groups took the place of rulers but did not have a centralized system of power Power was balanced so no one family had too much power Conflicts were resolved by the ruling of the group s elder leader

23 Tracing Family Descent Patrilineal = societies trace their ancestors through their fathers Inheritance passes from father to son Matrilineal = societies trace their ancestors through their mother Young men inherit land from their mother s family

24 Age Set System Age set = young people within a region who are born during a certain time period Each age set passes together through clearly identified life stages, such as warrior or elder Ceremonies mark the passage of each age set Duties and roles associated with varying ages

25 Population Pyramid Population Pyramid

26 Muslim States Islam played a major role in North African political history After Muhammad s death in 632, Muslims swept across the northwest part of Africa Muslim theocracies of Africa were established in the North By 670, Muslims ruled Egypt and Maghrib (Mediterranean coast of Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria) As Africans converted to Islam, they changed their government structure to Islamic Law (Sharia Law)

27

28 Islamic Law Obligated to follow religious law Helped unify individual states that had ethnic or cultural differences Islamic law had been a significant force politically and socially in African history Berbers (original inhabitants of N. Africa) converted to Islam while still maintaining their loyalties and identities Two Berber groups (Almoravids and Almohads) united the Maghrib under Muslim rule

29 Almoravid Reformers Founded in 11 th century, lived in western Sahara A devout Berber Muslim named Yahya ibn Ibrahim made a hajj to Mecca On his way home he convinced a Muslim scholar to return with him to teach his people about Islam His teaching attracted many followers and a strict religious brotherhood (Almoravids) was founded

30 Almoravid Empire The Almoravids grew into a powerful fighting force They conquered across the Sahara Desert and swept up into Spain Their religious zeal and powerful military helped create an empire during the 11 th and 12 th centuries Established their capital at Marrakesh Eventually Christian rulers pushed the Muslims out of Spain beginning in the 1100s (Reconquista)

31 Almohads Take Over In the mid 1100 s the Almohads (Berber Muslims reformers) took power from the Almoravids Began a militant religious movement Followed the teachings of Ibn Tumart who denounced other rulers for practicing non-traditional Islam. Urged his followers to follow the Qur an and Islamic law Lasted over a 100 years and united the Maghrib under one rule for the first time

32 Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

33 Kingdom of Ghana People started using camels in trade because they could last longer without water Kingdom of Ghana began to grow rich from taxing goods that were carried through their region

34 Kingdom of Ghana Gold & salt were two most important items The trade across the Sahara Desert between the Arab merchants and West African Kingdoms were primarily based on the exchange of gold and salt Gold = two-thirds of the world s gold supply came from West Africa Salt = Essential to human life and plentiful in the Sahara desert

35 Based on the map, which conclusion can best be drawn about this region? A. The Sahara Desert acted as a barrier to trade B. Rivers served as the primary trade routes for the entire region C. The economy of the region was influenced by extensive trade connections D. Goods from the Gulf of Guinea were exchanged directly with Italian cities

36 Based on the map, which conclusion can best be drawn about this region? A. The Sahara Desert acted as a barrier to trade B. Rivers served as the primary trade routes for the entire region C. The economy of the region was influenced by extensive trade connections D. Goods from the Gulf of Guinea were exchanged directly with Italian cities

37 Islamic Influence Islam spread through North Africa by conquest, but south of the Sahara, Islam spread through trade Muslim merchants and teachers settled in the states south of the Sahara and introduced their faith Ghanaian rulers converted to Islam By the 11 th century, Muslim advisers were helping the king run the kingdom

38 Impact of Muslim Expansion into West Africa The interaction of Muslim traders with the civilization of West Africa had a tremendous impact Expanded the influence of Islamic beliefs Increased trade of gold and salt The rise of the civilizations of Ghana and Mali West African trade routes were similar to the impact of the Silk Road in Asia Ideas were exchanged as merchants interacted with each other The expansion of Islam into Africa caused numerous political, economic and social changes Economic example: Sub-Saharan Africa and West Africa was pulled into the Arab trading zone

39 Empire of Mali Wealth was built on gold New deposits of gold were found so trade routes started to go through Mali Helped trade gold and salt throughout North & West Africa

40 Empire of Mali Mansa Musa = Mali s most famous ruler Skilled military leader Expanded empire to twice the size of Ghana

41 Mali s Golden Age Under Mansa Musa Lead Mali to a Golden Age Commissioned great mosques to be built in Timbuktu, Mali s capital, and other Mali cities. Muslim scholarship flourished and Timbuktu became a center of learning Public display of wealth and power enhanced Mali s reputation and prestige throughout the world. One conclusion that can be reached from the evidence about Mansa Musa s rule of Mali is that complex civilizations existed in West Africa before the arrival of the Europeans.

42 Muslim Architecture in Africa Architecture is the GREATEST example of cultural diffusion in the lands conquered by the Muslims When mosques were constructed, Muslim culture was blended with indigenous architectural styles

43 Djenné Mosque in Mali Built with mud bricks It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which means that it and surrounding homes cannot be changed or remodeled at all

44 Timbuktu Mansa Musa built mosques at Timbuktu and made it one of the most important cities in Africa There are in Timbuktu numerous judges, teachers and priests appointed by the king. He greatly honors learning. Many hand-written books imported from Barbary are also sold. There is more profit made from this commerce than from all other merchandise.. This passage suggests that Timbuktu was a city thata. Participated frequently in war b. Emphasized learning and trade c. Protected the human rights of all citizens d. Selected political leaders through democratic elections

45 Timbuktu Mansa Musa built mosques at Timbuktu and made it one of the most important cities in Africa There are in Timbuktu numerous judges, teachers and priests appointed by the king. He greatly honors learning. Many hand-written books imported from Barbary are also sold. There is more profit made from this commerce than from all other merchandise.. This passage suggests that Timbuktu was a city thata. Participated frequently in war b. Emphasized learning and trade c. Protected the human rights of all citizens d. Selected political leaders through democratic elections

46 Empire of Songhai Took over important gold and salt trade routes following the collapse of Mali Songhai built impressive empire of wealth and learning but lacked modern weapons and were eventually conquered by Morocco

47 Bantu of West Africa The primary reason the Bantu-speaking people of West Africa migrated southward and eastward between 500 BC and AD 1500 was to find land for farming and grazing

48 Arab Traders become Middlemen Once Arab traders reach Imperial China, they become the middlemen in trade between China and Europe Who used to be the middlemen in trade? Indians

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