Origin. Hinduism is an ethnic religion that evolved on the Indian subcontinent beginning about 3,500 years ago.

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1 Hinduism

2 Origin Hinduism is an ethnic religion that evolved on the Indian subcontinent beginning about 3,500 years ago.

3 Distribution/Diffusion Hinduism (shown above in hot pink) has approximately 806 million adherents worldwide. It is the main religion in India and Sri Lanka, but was carried to other parts of the world by Indians who moved there (or were moved by the British).

4 Fundamental Beliefs of Hinduism No single founder. No single sacred text. Some see Hinduism as polytheistic, others as monotheistic

5 Caste System The caste system divides Hindus into four societal divisions based on occupation When followed strictly, members of different castes do not marry, socialize, or interact with members of other castes The caste system is officially outlawed in India and is disappearing in cities where economic advancement is possible

6 Divisions/Jobs of the Caste System Highest Level Lowest Level Brahmins--priestly caste Kshatriyas--nobles/warriors/protectors Doctors, lawyers, CEO Vaishyas--merchants/land owner Shudras servants/artisans/laborers Dalits/untouchables do the nastiest jobs ever. ***Dalits are deemed so inferior they are not even recognized by caste system

7 Caste System Brahman Priest

8 Caste System Kshatriya ruler, warrior, landowner

9 Vaishya merchants, land owners and minor officials Caste System

10 Caste System Shudra unskilled labor

11 Caste System Dalits/untouchables are outside the caste system. Making dung patties to use for fuel. Cleaning the sewer.

12 Fundamental Beliefs of Hinduism Dharma = the duties to family and caste.

13 Fundamental Beliefs of Hinduism Karma All actions have future consequences--rewards or punishments (in this life or the next).. Vs.

14 Fundamental Beliefs of Hinduism Samsara Belief in reincarnation

15 Fundamental Beliefs of Hinduism Moksha The final release from reincarnation. (sort of a Hindu heaven)

16 How do dharma, kharma, samsara, and moksha fit together? 1. By performing dharma, a Hindu builds up karma. 2. With good karma, when they are reincarnated (samsara) they will be born into a higher caste 3. Brahmans with good karma reach moksha. 4. If you build bad karma, you a reincarnated to a lower caste!

17 Sacred Space Ganges River, the sacred river of Hinduism Every day, 60,000 people bathe in the waters of the ganges at Veranasi.

18 Sacred Space For centuries, Hindus have flocked to Varanasi, a city on the Ganges, in the belief that dying here frees the soul of sin and ends the cycle of life, death and rebirth.

19 Hindu Practices Cows are seen as sacred. Killing or harming a cow is prohibited.

20 Important Texts The Vedas: oldest text of Hinduism, the basic ideas of Hindusim

21 Important Texts Upanishads: Hindu philosophies and discussions between sages and priests

22 Important Texts Bhagivad Gita: a human prince, Arjuna, seeks help from Hindu diety Krishna

23 Hindu Dieties There are three basic sects, each represented by a high god. --Brahma--The Creator --Vishnu--The Preserver --Shiva--The Destroyer

24 Hindu Dieties Brahma the Creator Often portrayed with four faces for the four points of the compass Brahma does not take an interest in day-to day life (not as widely worshiped).

25 Hindu Dieties Vishnu the Preserver Vishnu is in charge of human fate. Vishnu has the largest number of followers within Hinduism. Vishnu and his wife, Lakshmi

26 Hindu Dieties When balance needs to be restored to the earth, Vishnu comes to earth as an avatar. Rama Seventh Avatar Krishna Eighth Avatar The tenth Avatar is yet to come. Buddha Ninth Avatar

27 Hindu Dieties Shiva the Destroyer Shiva is the source of both good and evil. He is also the one who creates new life. Shiva and his family. Shiva (left), Parvati (right), and Ganesha (middle). Shiva as Lord of the Dance

28 Hindu Dieties Ganesha is Shiva s son. He is the remover of obstacles who is invoked at the beginning of every Hindu undertaking.

29 Hindu Dieties Devi (the Protecting Mother), sometimes known simply as the Goddess, who appears in some form in every region of India. She is often identified as the creative energy of the universe, and is considered by her followers the equal of Vishnu and Shiva. All Hindu goddesses can be seen as different forms of Devi.

30 Hindu Practices Puja is individual worship in the form of faith offerings made to representations of the gods. This is often a normal part of daily life designed to meet daily needs e.g. requests for good health. It may also precede important events.

31 Hindu Practices Items at the home altar include water, a bell, a lamp, an incense burner, and a tray with flowers, fruit, or freshly-cooked food. All five of the senses are engaged.

32 Hindu Practices Puja ceremony Items used in Puja.

33 Hindu Practices--Festivals Hindus celebrate the Diwali New Year festival with bright lights, gift exchanges, fireworks, and elaborate feasts to welcome Lakshmi, the godess of light and wealth. (Usually celebrated Oct. 15- Nov. 15.)

34 Hindu Practices--Festivals Colors come from water mixed with colored powder. Holi is another festival that is celebrated by all communities. It s a festival of colors that marks the beginning of summer season.

35 Hindu Practices--Festivals Durga prevailing over evil. Navaratri or the nine sacred nights to the Mother Goddess are celebrated in the month of October - November to commemorate the victory of Good over Evil.

36 Hindu Practices Yoga is used to heighten awareness during meditation.

37 Hindu Practices The dot on a Hindu s forehead symbolizes the third eye of spiritual sight. The custom is for unmarried women to wear black marks, and married women to wear red. However, today women often wear dots that match the color of their saris (or outfit).

38 Hindu Practices Cremation at death is the custom Cremation ghats in Benares

39 Sacred Space Shrines The building of a shrine is an expression of devotion and an act of good karma. Shrines can be found in a temple, in the home, or in outdoor public spaces.

40 Sacred Space Temples Temples can be large or small. There is no day of communal worship. Larger temples are devoted to major dieties. Smaller temples are devoted to minor regional dieties. Small altars for offering puja are found in the home.

41 Sacred Space Temples to Shiva

42 At Veranasi, drink the Coke, but don t drink the water. The Ganges is highly polluted.

43 Veranasi 9-11 ghat drawing (A ghat is a place where people prepare to bathe and where cremations are performed.)

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