The Reformation in Britain

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1 The Reformation in Britain

2 Mary, Queen of Scots John Knox

3 Henry the 8 th was no supporter of Luther. It s a great irony that the Pope gave Henry the title: Defender of the Faith. At the same time, Henry was very concerned that he didn t have a son to succeed him. Henry the VIII

4 Catherine of Aragon watching Henry VIII joust

5 Henry the VIII Henry the 8 th was married to Catherine of Aragon. He desperately wanted a boy child as an heir. And he was in love with Anne Boleyn.

6 The problem Henry asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine. (She had been married as a child to Henry s Brother before he died.) He thought the lack of a son was a sign from God. BUT, when Henry s request reached the Pope, Rome happened to be surrounded by the troops of Emperor Charles V (Catherine s Uncle) who, for obvious reasons, wasn t keen to see the marriage dissolved. After some stalling the Pope said, No.

7 The Response Henry was not pleased! He announced himself Head of the Church of England in Ordered the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant him a divorce. And the Pope excommunicated him.

8 Thomas Cardinal Wolsey Thomas More

9 Henrys other wives 3 Jane Seymour 4 Beheaded 5 Anne of Cleves 6 Catherine Howard Katherine Parr

10

11

12 The Church of England The new church was Catholic in all but allegiance to the Pope Main anti-catholic action was closing down the monasteries and kicking out over 9000 monks and nuns to pay his supporters. Llanthony Priory, Wales Tintern Abbey, Wales

13 After Henry Henry died in Sickly, young, King Edward VI came next. Under him the Church in England became very influenced by the Protestants. Because he was only 11 the real power came from his uncle, Edward Seymour. Edward VI (r )

14 So what happened? Henry VIII s legislation was abolished. Protestant teaching was read in churches. In 1549 Parliament issued a compulsory book of common prayer, to replace the Catholic missal, and changed the old liturgy. In 1553 a formal Protestant Creed was issued, The 42 Articles of Religion and had to be accepted under threat of severe punishment.

15 What about after Eddie? Edward VI died in His half sister, Mary Tudor, Daughter of Henry s 1 st wife, became Queen. She was a keen Catholic. And tried to undo the religious laws of her Dad and brother.

16 Bloody Mary She married a Catholic king, Philip of Spain. Began to persecute Protestants. Between 1555 and 1558 her government killed 273 men and women for heresy (A fundamental error in religion). Mary died in 1558 and her half sister, Elizabeth founded The Anglican Church.

17 Elizabeth I (r )

18 Henry King head of church. Bible in English, but Latin Mass Persecution of Protestants and Catholics Mary So. New Prayer book. Services in English Priests allowed to marry Decorations torn from Churches Pope head of Church again Services back in Latin Persecution of Protestants Priestly celibacy Eddie Queen Governor not head of Church Services in English Priests could Marry New Prayer Book Lizzy 15 58

19 The Counter-Reformation or The Catholic Reformation

20 What is the Counter-Reformation? Long before Luther started the Reformation many Catholics had been calling for change in the Church. Many also wanted spiritual reform to help bring people closer to God. In general these calls were not heeded by those in authority. The Protestant reformation forced the Church to put its own house in order. This is referred to as the Counter- Reformation.

21 The Council of Trent

22

23 What was the Council of Trent? Called by Paul III (r ) who realised the abuses in the Catholic Church had caused so much harm that a Catholic Reform was needed. He called a general council of the Church to clearly state Catholic Teachings, and renew the Church spiritually and practically. Especially directed to those who had been challenged by the Protestant Reformers. The number of Bishops present varied from about 30 to 200.

24 What was the Council of Trent? Takes its name from the city of Trent (Trentino) in Northern Italy. Close to the German lands where many of the Protestants were. Lasted 18 years, over 3 sessions: first period: second period: third period: It was interrupted by politics, wars and plague.

25 Trent Decisions: Doctrine Human nature is not totally depraved. Justification comes through faith, hope and charity (love) which includes good works. Doctrine of transubstantiation is upheld. (Jesus is truly present in the Eucharist) The Mass is a sacrifice. Presided over by a Priest. Scripture and Tradition are an expression of Gods Revelation. Traditional 7 Sacraments were upheld. The position of the Pope as the successor of St Peter and the Vicar of Christ was affirmed.

26 Trent Decisions: Church Discipline A seminary for the education of priests was to be set up in each diocese. Decrees were passed against pluralism and absenteeism by clergy and religious. Indulgence selling was abolished. System where one person controlled a number of parishes Bishops held titles to dioceses they never visited but received taxes from them.

27 After Trent A Roman Catechism was written to help priests educate the laity. (1566) The Roman Missal (1570) set out a reformed and uniform order of the Mass throughout the Catholic world. The infamous Inquisition was established.

28 The Inquisition Had been first formed in the 13 th century, for trying those accused of heresy. It had virtually fallen into disuse. In 1542 it was revived to suppress heresy, particularly in Italy and Spain. Torture was often used to extract confessions and those condemned of heresy were often handed over to the State to be burned.

29

30 Who were the Jesuits? Ignatius Loyola ( ) Spiritual Exercises 1539: pope approved formation of the Society of Jesus Constitutions Ratio Studiorum (1585) Ignatius Loyola

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