England Establishes Settlements in America: 1. Religious Factors Religious, economic, and political influences led to England s colonization of

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1 (Giovanni Caboto) It is believed that Cabot actually landed somewhere near Newfoundland. Although he had not discovered the long dreamed of route to Asia, he did claim parts of Canada for England. Cabot returned home to England and the King rewarded him with large sums of money. Some believe Cabot was the first billionaire of England.

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4 England Establishes Settlements in America: 1. Religious Factors Religious, economic, and political influences led to England s colonization of America Protestant Reformation Martin Luther: 1520 CE is thrown out of the Catholic Church Virtually all of Western Europe was Catholic at the time Criticized the Catholic Church for its corruption then His ideas were very popular and spread rapidly Founded the German Protestant Church or Lutheran Church John Calvin Switzerland Kings nor bishops should control the church Congregations should choose their own elders/ministers Enormously important impact on England Martin Luther England King Henry VIII asked pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon Pope hesitated...for political reasons.

5 Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII

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7 Pope Clement VII Catherine of Aragon was the aunt of the King of Spain, Charles V Henry VIII of England furious Broke away from the Catholic Church Declared himself the Head of the Church Of England Grants himself a divorce Church of England became the Charles V Anglican Church Henry VIII agreed with Catholic Church doctrine, organization, and rituals. No allegiance to the Pope of Rome

8 Puritans: Those in England who sought to remove or purify the new Church of England of all its Catholic elements. Henry VIII s daughter from his second wife, Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth I eventually became Queen of England. She favored the Puritan cause. During Elizabeth I s reign: Supreme authority of the Bible (Sola Scriptura (Latin)) was instituted Much of the Catholic elements remained Real issue: who controlled the church? Puritans said congregations should elect their own ministers/leaders No bishops or archbishops appointed by the monarchy James I (King in 1603) Protestant (Non-Catholic Christian) Tolerated no changes in the Church of England Viewed as direct challenge to royal authority

9 Mother Anne Boleyn Queen Elizabeth I of England

10 King Henry VIII Mary Bloody Mary Elizabeth I Edward VI, King at 10 years old. Died at age 16.

11 James I of England James I s refusal to reform the Church of England prompted many Puritans to leave England to establish the kind of church they wanted in the New World. Those Puritans who left are known as Separatists They literally separated from the church All Separatists are Puritans, BUT not all Puritans are Separatists! Puritans remained in England to fight for church reform Separatists are Puritans who gave up and left England.

12 2. Economic Factors Revolution in trade and agriculture By the beginning of the 1500s, much of England was divided into great Estates owned by wealthy Nobles who rented land out to tenant farmers. Demand for wool products throughout Europe exploded in the 1500s English landowners (Nobles) saw there was money in the demand for wool. They converted their estates into large sheep farms. Evicted their tenants and enclosed their property with fences to keep their sheep contained. Enclosure Movement. Created thousands of poor, unemployed beggars Sought opportunities in America Surplus wool led to Joint Stock Companies/colonies in America to sell their wool. No gov. financing.

13 Surplus wool and need to find new markets led English merchants to search for a northern water route through North America to Asia. Martin Frobisher

14 200 Tons Pyrite or Fool s Gold

15 3. Political Factors: The Reformation changed Europe s balance of power: England was no longer Catholic, but now the leading Protestant power Spain remained the leading Catholic power The two former allies had become enemies Dutch (Holland) had become primarily Protestant and now allies with England Catholic Spain tried to suppress the Protestant non-catholic Christian religion there Queen Elizabeth I helped the Dutch by allowing English privateers to attack Spanish ships Privateers were privately owned ships licensed by the government to attack ships from other countries. Difficult because England had no bases in the Caribbean Queen Elizabeth I was advised to build outposts in America

16 Sir Walter Raleigh was an English explorer, soldier and writer. He became a favorite of Queen Elizabeth after serving in her army in Ireland. He was knighted in 1585, and within two years became Captain of the Queen's Guard. Between 1584 and 1589, he helped establish a colony near Roanoke Island (present-day Sir Humphrey Gilbert Sir Walter Raleigh North Carolina), which he named Virginia. Accused of Made two attempts to establish a treason by King James I, Sir colony in America. Both failed. Died Half-brothers Walter Raleigh was same mother, Catherine at sea when his ship was swallowed imprisoned and eventually put Champernowne by the sea in a great storm.

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