APWH Chapter 27.notebook January 04, 2016

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1 Chapter 27 Islamic Gunpowder Empires The Ottoman Empire was established by Muslim Turks in Asia Minor in the 14th century, after the collapse of Mongol rule in the Middle East. It conquered the Balkans after defeating the Orthodox Christian Serbs in It captured Constantinople in 1453 by using cannon against the city' walls, ending the Byzantine Empire. It then conquered the Mamluk state in Egypt, Syria, Israel, parts of Arabia (including Mecca), and North Africa. The Ottoman Empire's population was mostly Muslim, but it contained significant Jewish and Christian minorities. Jews and Christians enjoyed freedom of religion and fell under the limited authority of their community's leaders. Ottoman sultans were absolute monarchs. After 1517, the sultans also used the title of caliph. They were all descended from Osman, founder of the state, which was named after him. Any of the sultan's many sons (whether from wives or concubines) could succeed him, which led to competition and even murder among brothers. The sultan's concubines lived in a section of the palace known as the harem. The Ottoman Empire expanded because of its powerful army, which consisted of a cavalry (Turkish officers who governed territories and kept part of the tax revenue) and an infantry of slaves known as Janissaries. 1

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4 Janissaries were originally young Christian boys who were taken from their families, enslaved, and raised to be Muslims and soldiers. Before the 1500s, they were not even allowed to get married. The most capable boys were raised in the sultan's household. Viziers, who administered the empire, usually came from a Janissary background. In the 16th century the Ottoman Empire was the most powerful state in Europe on land, but it couldn't always match the Europeans at sea. Both the Portuguese (on the Indian Ocean) and the Spanish (on the Mediterranean Sea) defeated them. Once Europeans began to trade directly with Asia and Africa, global trade routes bypassed the Ottoman Empire. They did not engage in overseas exploration. Nevertheless, they were affected by inflation due to the influx of American gold and silver. Their money became worthless, so tax farming replaced tax collection by military officers. Imperial administration began to break down in the provinces. By the 17th and 18th centuries the Ottoman Empire fell behind Europe intellectually, as it did not keep up with discoveries of the Scientific Revolution. 4

5 The Mughal Empire of India was created by Turkish Muslim invaders from Central Asia. It was established by Babur (a descendant of Tamerlane) in India was easily conquered because it was politically fragmented, and Hindus were divided by caste. Mughal emperors were Muslim, but most of their subjects were Hindu. Nonetheless, it was the largest Indian empire since the Maurya Empire. It was governed in the Ottoman fashion. Military officers were given land grants, and they administered these territories and lived off the tax revenue. Mughal India's economy relied on the export of cotton cloth and spices. India was, as always, the center of the Indian Ocean trading network. The Mughal Empire had no navy, and it did not take the European maritime empires seriously. The Portuguese were able to establish a base in Goa by 1510, and, later, in the 17th and 18th centuries, British, French, and Dutch companies established trading outposts along the coast of India. Akbar, Babur's grandson, ruled from 1556 to He was the greatest Mughal emperor, and the empire grew to its greatest size under his rule. He tolerated all religions. Hindus could become local administrators, and did no have to pay the special tax for non Muslims. Mughal culture was famous for its paintings and blend of Hindu and Musl styles. The most famous Mughal structure is the Taj Mahal (tomb of an emperor's wife) in Agra (the original Mughal capital, until it was moved to Delhi). 5

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8 APWH Chapter 27.notebook January 04,

9 Two regions in Mughal India were majority Muslim, the Indus valley and Bengal. By the 1700s the Mughal Empire fragmented as local rulers, among them Hindus, asserted control over their regions. Private European companies, with their private armies of Indian soldiers trained by Europeans, also established control over parts of India. By then, Europeans had superior military technology, and abundant silver. East Indies Dutch East India Company established control over the East Indies in the 17th century, replacing the Portuguese. The Dutch controlled the spice trade, and the company used force to control islands and subdue uncooperative natives. East Indians were Muslim. They had been converted in the postclassical period by Muslim merchants and missionaries thanks to the Indian Ocean trading network. 9

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