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1 History Alive - Chapter 37: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World - VOCABULARY - a contribution of one culture to another - the art of designing buildings - human creations intended to express beauty and convey messages - the science of building structures and the like - spoken and written words used to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings - a theory or set of values by which one lives; the search for wisdom or knowledge - a legal system - having the characteristics of Roman art with a strong Greek influence - a period of European history around the 14 th century in which there was a rebirth of interest and accomplishments in art, literature, and learning - an arched structure used to hold up a ceiling or roof - a half-round or hemisphere-shaped roof 37.1 Introduction Christianity was one of many from ancient Rome. There are six other aspects of life that Romans have passed down to us The End of the Empire in the West There are several reasons to why such a powerful empire, known as the Fall of the Roman Empire. Political Instability Rome never solved the problem of how to transfer political power to a new and capable leader. When an emperor died, ambitious rivals often fought each other for the emperor s crown. Many times emperors were murdered because of the quest for power. After 180 C.E., Rome had a series of weak and dishonest emperors. Economic and Social Issues To support Rome s huge armies, its citizens had to pay heavy taxes. These taxes hurt the economy and drove many people into. Trade also suffered. Weakening Frontiers The huge size of the empire made it hard to defend. Germanic tribes were pressing hard on the borders of the empire. The Fall of Rome The emperor Constantine moved the capital to the east, to the ancient city of Byzantium. Later, it was called. After his reign, power was divided between two emperors, one based in Rome and the other in Constantinople. Rome became the capital of just the western part of the empire.

2 The Germanic tribes attacked Rome and drove out the last emperor in the west. In the east, the empire continued for another 1,000 years as the Byzantine Empire Art Roman art was influenced very much by the arts of the Greeks. art were focused on realism, making statues and painting lifelike. Romans were great (sponsors) of art. They paid thousands of painters, sculptors, and craftspeople to create their worlds, leaving behind many examples to inspire future generations. After the fall of the empire, Roman art was rediscovered during the. Artists like Michelangelo revived the Greco-Roman style in their paintings and sculptures Architecture and Engineering The Romans greatest contributions to science and technology came in the practical fields of architecture and engineering. Architecture Romans learned how to use the vault and the to build huge structures. They were the first to invent concrete and were able to build much bigger arches than anyone had attempted before. Romans invented a new kind of building, the, as shown by the Colosseum. Roman buildings have inspired many through the centuries. The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France modeled its structure after the Roman triumphal arch, and the U.S. Capitol building uses the dome shape. Engineering Romans were the greatest builders of, bridges, and aqueducts in the ancient world. They built nearly 53,000 miles of roads to connect Rome to the ends of the empire with layers of stone, sand, and gravel. Even though they did not invent the, the Romans learned the technique and expanded on it. Their aqueducts were able to bring water from about 60 miles away into the city s homes, public baths, and fountains.

3 37.5 Language The official Roman language was, which is the basis of many European languages. Italian, Spanish, and French all come from Latin. Even though English is a Germanic language, it uses many Latin prefixes and has words based on Latin roots. Latin Prefixes Used in English Words Latin Roots Used in English Words Latin Prefix Meaning English Words Latin Root Meaning English Word The Roman are also still widely used today, on clocks, sundials, as well as movie credits to show which year a move was made. Seven Basic Roman Numerals Roman Numerals Other Meaning Roman Numerals Meaning

4 37.6 Philosophy and Law Roman philosophy and law were also greatly influenced by the. A Philosophy Called Stoicism was a philosophy that came from the Greeks. Stoics believed that a divine intelligence ruled all of nature and the one truly good thing in life was to have a good character. This meant having self-control and courage. Stoics were famous for bearing pain and suffering bravely and quietly. Law and Justice Roman covered all parts of life, including marriages, inheritances, and contracts between people. Another legacy was the Roman idea of. The Romans believed that there was universal law of justice that came from nature and that everyone had rights. Romans spread this idea by applying it to all citizens of the empire. Judges in Roman courts tried to make fair decisions that respected people s rights. However, Romans did not always live up to their. Their courts did not treat the poor or slaves as equal to the rich.

5 Chapter 37 Essential Questions 1. What problems contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire? What ultimately brought about the end of the empire? 2. In what ways did the Romans influence modern art, architecture, and engineering? 3. Why is Latin an important legacy of Rome? 4. What lasting contributions did the Romans make in the areas of philosophy and law? 5. Compare Roman achievements to those of the earlier Greeks. Think about areas such as art, architecture, engineering, political thought, religion, and philosophy. What are some major influences of both cultures on our lives today?

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