13. Upheaval in Western Christendom,

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1 13. Upheaval in Western Christendom,

2 Upheavals Black Death First Appears 1347 New Technologies Change Society Renaissance Begins in Italy Columbus In America 1492 Various upheavals had both positive and negative effects Reformation Begins in Holy Roman Empire (Germany) 1517

3 Contents Black Death & Renaissance

4 Introduction to the Black Death 2min19 How did the plague affect the population by 1400? Name the important author of the Decameron. What was the Decameron?

5 Black Death Context

6 The Great Mortality

7 Black Death Explain the social, economic, and political impacts of the plague on Europe.

8 Audio : Source: The Late Middle Ages. THE TEACHING COMPANY Philip Daileader Ph.D., Harvard University The College of William and Mary Petrarch

9 Audio : Source: The Late Middle Ages. THE TEACHING COMPANY Philip Daileader Ph.D., Harvard University The College of William and Mary Italian City Official

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14 Demographics 3 centuries of increasing population during High Middle Ages Great Famine 1315 Mortality ~5%-10% More food shortages 1330s-1340s Weaken population for disease?

15 The Great Mortality Yersinia pestis bacterium rat flea Normal in fleas Asia & East Africa Normally innocuous Multiply sometimes like crazy Infect rats as fleas regurgitate Also pneumonic plague and septicaemic plague

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17 Contemporary Explanations Theological God s punishment Penance wards it off Flagellants Astrological Conjunction of planets was polluting atmosphere Anti-Semitic Jews accused - poison

18 Mortality Standard stat is 30%, probably more like half with lower mortality north Florence 120K in 1338 to 38K in 1427 Abandoned villages Underbrush in woods Lots more trees! Pop 60% lower by 1450 Would not reach the 1300 population level until 1600

19 Consequences Profound consequences Dividing line in their history Returned regularly for 3 centuries Medieval society at no time ceased to function

20 Upheavals Black Death First Appears 1347 New Technologies Change Society Renaissance Begins in Italy Columbus In America 1492 Various upheavals had both positive and negative effects Reformation Begins in Holy Roman Empire (Germany) 1517

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22 Ring around the Rosie Many folklore scholars regard the theory as baseless for several reasons: 1. The late appearance of the explanation; 2. The symptoms described do not fit especially well with the Great Plague; 3. The great variety of forms makes it unlikely that the modern form is the most ancient one, and the words on which the interpretation are based are not found in many of the earliest records of the rhyme (see above); 4. European and 19th-century versions of the rhyme suggest that this "fall" was not a literal falling down, but a curtsy or other form of bending movement that was common in other dramatic singing games

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32 Transi tombs

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37 Effects Increase geographical mobility Wages up Rents and land values down Food prices generally down Poor got richer, rich got poorer Despite rich attempts to stem the tide Peasant revolts

38 Europe, 15th-17th centuries Renaissance and Humanism

39 1. What were some causes of the change from the medieval to the Renaissance? 2. How did the Renaissance differ from the medieval period? How was it similar? 3. What impact did capitalism have on the Renaissance?

40 Renaissance is What did the people at the time think of the idea of Renaissance?

41 Renaissance caused by Trade Technology Breakdown of feudalism in favor of social strata by wealth Humanism Individualism Education Rebirth of GrecoRoman achievement

42 What impact did capitalism have on the Renaissance? What is capitalism? Profit Property Competition Market How did this help start the Renaissance?

43 Renaissance begins in Italy (Florence) because wealth physically close to origins of Classical past economics: Those who possessed capital had few opportunities to invest their money in enterprises (Black Death ruined economy), so invested in culture

44 Humanism Secular but NOT atheist Individualism Break with the past Petrarch: division of history into Classical, Medieval Dark Age, Renaissance

45 Humanism is caused by Scholarship leads to discoveries that question tradition Improve self through education admiration for classical past debate against Scholasticism Proper Latin!!

46 Contrast Humanism & Scholasticism Humanist Scholastic human happiness attainable happiness in the afterlife in lifetime not in life re-examine Vulgate Bible Vulgate Bible is fine Practical education Figure it out yourself Revere the "Experts of Old" Merchants; bourgeois; cities Secondary education level Tradition! Universities nobles

47 Similarities Renaissance and Medieval Period Christianity remains at core Social hierarchy intact Though bourgeois growing in power Tradition Some in Renaissance seeks to clarify tradition go back to original intent as if Medieval folk had lost their way

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50 Visual Arts How do visual arts emphasize the importance of the individual in a secular society? Da Vinci Michelangelo Sculptor Painter Architect Idealized forms of human beings

51 Importance of the individual in a secular society - Visual Scenes are no longer religious Some aspect of humanity is offered up for admiration

52 Medieval Art

53 Medieval

54 Medieval

55 Giotto

56 Fra Angelico, 14th cen

57 Fra Angelico

58 Hieronym us Bosch

59 Sandro Botticelli

60 Peter Brueghel

61 Bosch again

62 Albrecht Durer

63 Portraiture

64 Portraiture

65 Architecture How do sculptures emphasize the importance of the individual in a secular society? Sculptors study GrecoRoman masters Donatello Brunelleschi churches as spiritual places to fulfill human, not divine, needs

66 Importance of the individual in a secular society - Architectural Churches as spiritual places to fulfill human, not divine, needs Concern for beauty in Greco-Roman sense

67 Literature How does literature emphasize the importance of the individual in a secular society? Vernacular Dante Inferno Cervantes Don Quixote Chaucer Canterbury Tales Shakespeare Etc. etc. etc.

68 Importance of the individual in a secular society - Literary Chaucer Characters are honorable

69 Political Science How does political science emphasize the importance of the individual in a secular society? Machiavelli Ends justify the means Most at the time spoke of the Prince s moral obligations not Niccholo! Humans = basically selfinterested use this knowledge to control them Prince acts for the State morality can take a nap

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