Exhibit 1. Hobbes also argued that people should give up some of their freedoms and listen to a king who will protect the rest of their rights.

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1 Exhibit 1 Volume 10 April 8, 2017 Thomas Hobbes ( ) was an English philosopher who changed the way the world viewed politics. He wrote a book called Leviathan where he wrote his ideas. Hobbes believed that people are naturally selfish and brutal. He believed that human s state of nature was to do what benefits themselves, not others. Hobbes believed that humans would always fight because of their selfish nature. Because of this, Hobbes believed that people needed to be ruled by a king that had all power and authority over people. To clarify, Hobbes might argue that if people were allowed to just drive around the city any way that they pleased, they would get into more accidents, park in the middle of intersections and block roads. It would lead to chaos. He would argue that drivers need rules, traffic lights, and enforcement to ensure that people did not live in chaos. Hobbes developed the idea of Social Contract. The social contract is the idea that everyone has to give up some of their own personal freedom so that everyone in society has freedom. For example, you have the freedom to own a bike and I have to give up some of my personal freedom to just come along and steal it from you. Hobbes also argued that people should give up some of their freedoms and listen to a king who will protect the rest of their rights. Hobbes placed more importance on government rather than the church. This caused the Catholic Church to place his book on the Banned Book list until 1966.

2 Exhibit 2 Video An Introduction to Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan Macat with Cambridge University

3 Exhibit 3 Who was John Locke and what was His Big Idea? Michael A. Long John Locke was a philosopher from England who lived from He believed that people needed a system of government and laws to protect them from living in a state of nature. A state of nature means that people live naturally, with no laws or government to guide their decisions or tell them what to do. At first, you might think this sounds great after all, who wants rules? Who wants to be told what to do? Well, John Locke believed that without a government, life would be very challenging. There would be violence and fighting, and the more dominant (stronger people) would take over and force the weaker people to follow their will. He also felt that the natural rights of people would be threatened even the right to life itself. John Locke believed that in order to prevent this state of nature there needed to be a system of government for the purpose of protecting three basic rights. He called this system a social contract because it was a contact agreed upon by the people in order to protect their rights. What were these three basic rights? He believed all people should have: 1) the right to life, 2) liberty and 3) the right to own property. The founders of the United States really seemed to agree with Locke s ideas. Perhaps they felt this way this because they had seen these rights taken away by King George III of England. So, if a social contract means you have to agree to give up certain freedoms, how can it possibly be good? Well, throughout history, we have seen that when people can do whatever they want, the strongest people tend to take over and force their will upon others. By agreeing to a reasonable system of rules for everyone to follow, this can be avoided and people gain protection of their rights. In other words, the main purpose of a social contract is to protect you! And guess what America s social contact is called? You ve got it: the Constitution of the United States. Locke s emphasis on government over the church placed him on the Catholic Church s banned book list until Source:

4 Exhibit 4 Video The Enlightenment: John Locke The Oxford Observer

5 Exhibit 5 Montesquieu was a French lawyer and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. Montesquieu developed the theory of a Separation of Powers. This was the idea that the king shouldn t have all of the power. Rather, the power of the government should be separated into different groups that kept each other in check. These groups would prevent other groups from abusing their power. This was a good idea at the time because France at that time was under the tyrant rule of King Louis XIV who bragged, "I am the state." All powers were in the hands of the king. This was horrible for the liberty of individual people. Montesquieu fought for the freedom of the individual and raised his voice against the absolute rule of the king. He realized that it was in the nature of man to abuse authority and power. "Constant experience shows us that every man with power is [going] to abuse it, and to carry his authority until he is confronted with limits." Montesquieu believed that governments had to have clear limits in order to be good governments. He, therefore, argued for a separation of powers. In his book Spirit of Laws published in 1748, he observed that when kings are the law-makers and the judges, people could not have liberty. He said, "When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty. The same monarch or senate would enact tyrannical laws and execute them in a tyrannical manner." His book had enormous influence on how governments should work. Countries used the idea of a separation of powers and instead of just giving the king or president all of the power, power was distributed to judges and congress as well. His focus on individuality and morality over religion placed his writing on the Church s banned book list until Adapted from and

6 Separation of Power and Checks and Balances Exhibit 6 Montesquieu came up with the idea that a government should have a Separation of Powers. This would prevent the president or king from having too much power. A Separation of Powers creates three branches of government: the Legislative Branch that makes laws, the Executive branch that executes the laws, and the Judicial branch that checks to see that laws are legal, or Constitutional. The graph below shows how these branches balance each other and keep each other in check. This is called Checks and Balances.

7 Exhibit 7 HISTORY IN THE HEADLINES 1. Voltaire ( ) was a French philosopher at a time when freedom of thought was emerging to challenge the way things were. 2. He was known for defending freedom of 1. Voltaire was a French philosopher at a time when freedom of thought was emerging to religion. He fought on behalf of Protestants challenge the way things were. who were treated unfairly. He was 2. He was known for defending freedom of religion. He fought on behalf of Protestants distrustful of religion and found himself in who were treated unfairly. He was distrustful of religion and found himself in a lifelong a lifelong battle against the Church. battle against the Church. 3. He argued that church should not teach dogma (beliefs) but instead, the church should teach morality. 4. Voltaire believed people had the right to a fair trial. This means that if a person is accused of a crime, they still have the right to be treated fairly. They should have an attorney and be judged by a jury of people just like them. He believed in hedonism the belief that pleasure and happiness are the most important goals in life. 5. Voltaire distrusted democracy. He thought it promoted the idiocy of the masses. He believed only enlightened monarch advised by philosophers could bring change and improve the power and wealth of France. He once said, I would rather obey one fine lion, much stronger than myself, than two hundred rats of my own species. 6. Voltaire was a prolific writer and produced works in almost every form plays, poetry, novels, essays, pamphlets and over 20,000 letters. 7. He is known for his sarcastic tone and fast-moving plot. He made fun of religions, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies and philosophers. 8. Voltaire believed that the best society was nonreligious, tolerant, and made progress through scientific advances and reforming politics and society. 9. He influenced other Enlightenment figures such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson and Voltaire s belief in civil rights and the principle of religious freedom would later appear in the US Constitution and it s guarantees of freedoms of speech, the press, and religion. 10. His real name is François-Marie Arouet but wrote with the fake name or pseudonym Voltaire. Historians don t know why. Adapted from Sources:

8 Exhibit 8, Quote 1 Exhibit 8, Quote 2 Exhibit 8, Quote 3

9 Exhibit 8, Quote 4 Exhibit 8, Quote 5 Exhibit 8, Quote 6 Exhibit 8, Quote 7

10 Exhibit 9 Italian Criminologist Unit Protecting the Rights of the Accused" MEMO To: Italian Criminologist Unit From: Director Michel Yamiles RE: Cesare Beccaria s Contributions to Italian Criminology Cesare Beccaria was an intellectual who began a study of criminal law and the justice system in He was upset by the harsh practices that were common in his day. Torture was often used to get confessions from accused persons or statements from witnesses to a crime. People might have their thumbs crushed in a device called a thumbscrew. Or they might have their bodies stretched on a device called a rack until their bones were separated. Beccaria objected to other practices as well. It wasn t unusual for trials to be held in secret. Judges were often corrupt. People found guilty of crimes were often sentenced to death. Beccaria attacked these practices in a famous book called On Crimes and Punishments. He argued that laws exist to preserve security and order. Punishments, he said, should be designed to serve this purpose. Like other people, criminals made rational decisions. To stop people from committing crimes, punishment did not have to be brutal. It only had to be certain and just severe enough to outweigh the potential benefits of the crime. Beccaria also argued for other specific rights. A person accused of a crime, he said, should receive a fair and speedy trial. Torture should never be used. In addition, it was wrong to punish some people more harshly than others for the same crime. Punishment, he said, should fit the seriousness of the crime. And capital punishment (putting someone to death) should be done away with completely. Beccaria s book encouraged the scientific study of crime. His ideas about rights and punishment influenced reform movements throughout Europe. In the United States, many laws concerning crime reflect his ideas. Source:

11 Exhibit 10 How did Beccaria s ideas influence the laws of the United States? Beccaria s Opinion 1. Beccaria argued that torture should not be used to get confessions from people. 2. Beccaria argued that people should not just be put to death from committing any crime. 3. Beccaria argued that trials shouldn t be held in secret. 4. Beccaria argued that people that are accused of a crime should have a quick trial. 5. Beccaria argued that punishments should fit the crime. Laws of the United States A. Americans are protected from cruel and inappropriate punishments. B. Americans are given punishments that match the crimes. C. Americans have a right to a trial with a jury of their peers in open court. D. Americans are considered innocent until proven guilty and cannot be treated unkindly or unfairly when they are answering questions. E. Americans have a right to a fair and speedy trial. With extra time, try the matching game on Quizlet! Source:

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