The Enlightenment. Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence! ~ Immanuel Kant

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1 The Enlightenment Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence! ~ Immanuel Kant

2 The Enlightenment Key Concepts: Reason Natural law Progress Liberty Happiness

3 The Enlightenment Essential Question: What intellectual developments led to the emergence of the Enlightenment?

4 The Popularization of Science Colbert Presenting the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences to Louis XIV in 1667

5

6 The Popularization of Science

7 Bernard de Fontenelle

8 The Impact of Travel Literature

9 A New Skepticism

10 Cultural Relativism

11 PRECURSORS Newton and Locke

12 NEWTON Laws of Physics

13 NEWTON Rational View of the Universe

14 LOCKE tabula rasa

15 LOCKE Rational View of Government

16 The Enlightenment Essential Question: What intellectual developments led to the emergence of the Enlightenment?

17 Pair Share Turn to your elbow partner and discuss what this quote by Voltaire means to you. I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it

18 The Enlightenment Essential Question: Who were the leading figures of the Enlightenment, and what were their contributions?

19 PHILOSOPHE

20 PHILOSOPHE This is NOT a misspelling.

21 PHILOSOPHE It s FRENCH for philosopher.

22 PHILOSOPHE ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHER

23 The Philosophes and Their Ideas They came from the middle class and nobility Cosmopolitan, but most were French They wanted to change the world, not discuss it Influenced by the Scientific Revolution and the ideas of John Locke

24 LOCKE tabula rasa

25 The Philosophes and Their Ideas They came from the middle class and nobility Cosmopolitan, but most were French They wanted to change the world, not discuss it Influenced by the Scientific Revolution and the ideas of John Locke They called for freedom of expression

26 VOLTAIRE French Philosophe, Author, & Playwright

27 ADVOCATE Freedom of Expression

28 ADVOCATE of Religious Toleration

29 CRITIC of Christianity ( Revealed Religion)

30

31 OTHER NOTABLE WORKS Letters on England Philosophical Dictionary Elements of Newton s Philosophy

32 Which countries or regions were at the center of the Enlightenment, and what could account for peripheral regions being less involved?

33 DIDEROT French Author and Editor

34 Photo by Giuseppe Milo Natural Religion

35

36 The Encyclopédie was a collaborative effort to compile and distribute a wide variety of knowledge from an enlightened perspective. Primary Source Reading

37 Physiocrates Founders of Modern Economics Rejected mercantilism favored laissez-faire policies Laisse-faire let people do as they choose

38 The Father of Modern Economics Photo by Andreas Praefcke

39 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the WEALTH of NATIONS Photo by Andreas Praefcke

40 Adam Smith Three Principles of Economics Free Trade Anti-tariff and mercantilism Labor was the source of a nations wealth The state should not interfere in economic matters (economic liberalism)

41 Adam Smith

42 Checking for Understanding Today I learned

43 MONTESQUIEU The Spirit of the Laws

44 GOVERNMENT Organized on Enlightenment Principles

45 SEPARATION Martha Ormiston (Noun Project) LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL

46 CHECKS Each branch has oversight over the other branches. Erin Gillaspy (The Noun Project)

47 Man was born free and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they Any law that is made without the people voting for it is not a law at all.

48 ROUSSEAU The Social Contract

49

50 Rousseau s Social Contract protects the general will Government Social Contract People give power

51 What makes a government LEGITIMATE?

52 FREEDOM?

53 Submission to the GENERAL WILL

54 On Education

55 Women and the Enlightenment Salons

56 Women and the Enlightenment Mary Wollstonecraft Founder of modern feminism

57 Women and the Enlightenment Mary Wollstonecraft Argument 1. Pointed out contradictions in the philosophes views about women 2. Enlightenment was based on the idea that all men were reasonable 3. Advocated for the education of women

58 Short Answer Question Many historians argue that the Scientific Revolution is the most important cause of the Enlightenment. Answer parts A, B, and C. A. Briefly explain one reason that historians place such importance on the rise of science as a historical cause. B. Choose one piece of evidence and explain how it shows the importance of science on Enlightenment thought. C. Briefly explain one cause other than the scientific Revolution for the rise of the Enlightenment.

59 Crime and Punishment

60 Characteristics of Rococo Light-hearted depiction of upper class life

61

62 Characteristics of Rococo Light-hearted depiction of upper class life Elegantly dressed aristocrats at play

63

64 Characteristics of Rococo Light-hearted depiction of upper class life Elegantly dressed aristocrats at play Curves and pastel colors Secular themes

65

66 Rococo Architecture Balthasar Neumann

67 Rococo Architecture

68 Neoclassicism Jacques-Louis David

69 Oath of the Horatii

70 Classicism Music Mozart

71 The Writing of History

72 Popular Culture

73 Carnival

74 Taverns and Alcohol

75 Taverns and Alcohol

76

77 Pietism

78 Methodism

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