Study Guide Test #4. Jan 2018 Empires and Revolutions

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1 Study Guide Test #4 Jan 2018 Empires and Revolutions The Rise of the State divine right / absolutism Ways that Richelieu and other centralizers [incl. New Monarchs] created the modern state 5 Principles of modern state: nationalism, national economy, centralized power, monopoly on force, bureaucracy balance of power Kings and Empires (see War chart below) Age of Dominance [1600s, early 1700s] ANGLO-FRENCH WARFARE, 1670s 1815 Cardinal Richelieu [under Louis XIII] Louis XIV Sun King l etat, c est moi Versailles CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE and the Hohenzollerns rise to power Emphasis on army Frederick II, the Great Poland (fate by 1790s) map (multi-ethnic empire and the Hapsburgs} Maria Theresa The Romanovs Peter the Great SO WHAT? St. Petersburg Ways and methods Peter modernized Wars / Expansion Vs. TURKS [the push SOUTH] Great Northern War vs. Swedes [push WEST] Expansion to Siberia [push EAST] Catherine II (the Great) enlightened despot Pugachevs revolt and SERFDOM Turkish decline after 1700 Mohammed al Wahab

2 Wars Great Turkish War Great Northern War War of the Spanish Succession War of the n Succession Years War ( allies with by marriage radical change!) American War of Independence WHO? versus Dutch USA Dutch WHO? WHY? WHERE? RESULTS (So What???) Ottomans Sweden Poland and pushing south against weakened Turks Peter the Great wants to expand WEST Louis wants to be king of after death of Carlos el Loco; everyone afraid of FRANCE (balance of power); Anglo- French rivalry Everyone attacks Empress Maria Theresa; Anglo- French rivalry n-n rivalry Anglo-French rivalry; incident in Ohio, trade in India; n-n rivalry everyone afraid of BRITISH 13 colonies rebel Anglo-French rivalry; everyone afraid of BRITISH Balkans,, siege of Vienna n win World war at sea, Caribbean, Americas, Europe, India Europe, at sea, colonies World war at sea, Caribbean, Americas, Europe, India Mostly 13 colonies but eventually at sea, Caribbean Turks lose land to and St. Petersburg built A tie gets to put a Bourbon in ; England gets trade rights; gets Belgium; DEBT for Maria Theresa survives, gets land from, British navy supreme; DEBT for survives triple invasion; British control seas, India, Quebec; DEBT for and UK USA indepdent, DEBT for, British king out of power, British abandon mercantilism for free trade (capitalism), ideas of liberty inspire others England -Constitutional monarchy Glorious Revolution why did it happen? SO WHAT? William [of Orange, later III of England] and Mary Bill of Rights Toleration Act Battle of the Boyne and the fate of Ireland The UNITED KINGDOM (1707) Robert Walpole [first prime minister] and the German [Hanover] Georges I & II Rise of Parliament Tories & Whigs Seven Years War SO WHAT? major results regarding and England, in the Americas & India Battle of Quebec Battle of Plassey - BRITISH EAST INDIA CO.

3 British East India Company takes over India The American Revolution Causes Washington French role Yorktown 18 th century philosophy and political thought the [French] ENLIGHTENMENT French Philosophes WORLDVIEW Voltaire Truth = human reason and physical evidence Humans are MATTER [spirit is private opinion] We can fix the broken world through progress brought about by human reason/science Scientists and intellectuals are heroes rule of the wise - Condorcet (optimism and progress) salons Diderot Encyclopedie A Tale of Two Enlightenments God Religion Who should rule? Man French Enlightenment Creator; uninvolved and irrelevant [Deism]; or unbelieving. Religion is superstition. (Bad) The wise, (aka, intellectuals, Plato s philosopher-kings ) though all can have some liberty and equality. Some men can be perfected by developing reason. Scots Enlightenment Creator; particular churches don t matter (Deism), but God is involved with justice in the world. (Providence) Any religion can be a useful tool to teach society morals, as long as it respects reason. But doctrine is a private matter. Democracy is possible since all are capable of moral sentiments ( common sense ), so liberty and equality are possible. All men are potentially good enough through reason and development of moral sentiments. Passion Passion bad. There are good passions that give us a clue about morality (empathy) and bad passions. Reason Reason is all we need. Reason is great! (But it s not everything) Women Generally too Generally too passionate passionate to reason to reason well well And then there s Rousseau Meh. Meh. General will the majority Man is good (only ruined by society) Intuition / passion is superior to reason It s merely a tool especially constituted to please men

4 Scottish Common Sense Enlightenment [Hutcheson, Smith] (empathy is common to all; wisdom is moral sense; reason is excellent but it isn t what makes us, ultimately, human ergo equality, freedom are possible if the moral muscle is developed by social institutions; God is an active and necessary providence, though human religion may be suspect or may be useful) POLITICAL IDEAS social contract state of nature Thomas Hobbes Leviathan John Locke [yes, again!] 2d Treatise on Gov t. man is free, equal, right to LIFE, LIBERTY and PROPERTY right to revolt source of evil in state of nature (property) Baron d Montesquieu Enlightened despotism Rousseau Confessions, Social Contract, Emile WORLDVIEW On human nature On freedom and nature as superior to civilization On the general will and the superiority of the state Pietists & the Great Awakening Social reform, equality, abolitionism John Wesley & Methodists French Revolution ( ) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette CAUSES and RESULTS of the French REVOLUTION libertie, egalitie, fraternitie the THREE estates Estates General Phases of the French Revolution NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (somewhat revolutionary English style government) Tennis Court Oath Bastille Sans culottes Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Olympie degouges Civil Constitution of the Clergy Marquis d Lafayette Jacobins Girondins (center left) THREATS TO THE REVOLUTION The Vendee (counter revolution) Flight to Varennes Guillotine NATIONAL CONVENTION (radical, violent, Terror) G. Danton Maxmillien Robespierre Marat Hebert and De-Christianization [Cult of Reason] Committee of Public Safety Law of Suspects

5 Murder of Marat The Terror reaction [Thermidor] against Robespierre THE DIRECTORY - rule of 5 rich commoners Napoleon ( ) Rise of Bonaparte Egyptian campaign Restrictions on political liberty meritocracy causes for rise of Napoleon.why he was welcomed at first policies, including the Code Napoleon The Empire [ ] War of 1812 causes for Napoleon s downfall invasion of invasion of - guerillas Trafalgar & Admiral Nelson Alexander I B. of Waterloo & Duke of Wellington Continental System the Congress of Vienna.what did it DO? Count Klemens von Metternich Effects of Napoleonic conquests

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