The Enlightenment in Europe. Chapter 22, Section 2

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1 The Enlightenment in Europe Chapter 22, Section 2

2 Thomas Hobbes All humans were naturally selfish and wicked, therefore governments must keep order. People should hand over their rights to a strong ruler. This was what Hobbes called a social contract. Strong ruler should have total power (an absolute monarchy). This powerful government with awesome power is what he called a leviathan (sea monster) therefore he titled his book Leviathan (1651).

3 John Locke People were reasonable (though still selfish) and had the natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Purpose of government is to protect these natural rights. Government power comes from the consent of the people.

4 Voltaire Wrote more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama. Used satire against his enemies, especially the clergy. Beliefs: Tolerance Reason Freedom of religious belief Freedom of speech I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.

5 Montesqieu Believed Britain was the best-governed and most politically balanced country of his own day. Proposed the separation of powers between executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Proposed checks and balances.

6 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Passionately committed to individual freedom. Believed man was born free and good but easily corrupted. Believed the only good government was the general will or direct democracy.

7 Cesare Bonesana Beccaria Beliefs Laws existed to preserve social order, not avenge crime. Accused should receive speedy trials. Torture should never be used. Degree of punishment should match seriousness of crime. Capital punishment (death penalty) should be abolished.

8 Mary Wollstonecraft Women should be equally educated along with men. Women should enter professions traditionally dominated by men like medicine and politics. Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

9 Mary Shelley Daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft. Mistress and later wife of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Author of Frankenstein in the summer of 1816, Later published in 1818.

10 Frivolous But Interesting Information

11 Climate and the writing of April 1815, Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia erupts. This was the world s largest eruption in 1,600 years. (7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index) Frankenstein

12 Climate and the writing of Frankenstein (continued) Immense amounts of volcanic dust ejected into the atmosphere. In the summer of 1816 temperatures in northern Europe, Canada, and the northeastern United States were at record lows. Crop failures occurred when a May frost destroyed crops already planted has since been called The Year Without a Summer.

13 Climate and the writing of Frankenstein (continued) Effects of this volcanic winter throughout the world Westward migration from the colder New England states in the United States in search of the richer soil of the upper Midwest Food shortages, rioting and looting of food stores in Europe which was also recovering from the effects of the Napoleonic Wars Storms and abnormal rainfall in Europe causing massive flooding of rivers Unusually low temperatures, including summer snowfall in China causing famine Brown and red snow falling in Hungary and Italy from the presence of volcanic ash in the atmosphere

14 Climate and the writing of Frankenstein (continued) Inventions sparked by this volcanic winter Velocipede (now called bicycles) invented because of a lack of grain to feed horses Chemist Justus von Liebig, who experience this famine as a child, researched and introduced chemical fertilizers into agriculture.

15 Climate and the writing of Frankenstein (continued) Illustration from the 1831 edition. The Shelley s (Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin calling herself Mary Shelley though she is not yet married to Percy) spend the summer with Lord Byron at his villa by Lake Geneva in Switzerland. The weather being too cold to carry out normal summer activities, the group reside indoors staying up all night in intellectual discussions. They often sit around the fire reading German ghost stories.

16 Climate and the writing of Frankenstein (continued) Lord Byron suggests that to entertain themselves indoors each of them write his or her own supernatural tale. During this time Mary Godwin conceived of the idea for Frankenstein. Therefore, being shut in due to the weather caused by a volcanic winter brought about the occasion of the writing of this famous novel. Boris Karloff as the Monster in 1931.

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