Philosopher Networking Assignment

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1 AP European History Philosopher Networking Assignment Name of Philosopher: Francis Bacon Dates of Birth and Death: January 1561 to April 1626 The Advancement of Learning, New Atlantis, Of the Colours of Good and Evil, A Device For the Gary s Inn Revels, An Advertisement Touching the Controversies of the Church of England, The New Organon He believed in uncovering the truth, serving his country (early form of nationalism) and serving the church. He was liberal and wanted to reform England. Wanted to simplify the law, opposed dictatorial powers and bribes. Spoke against religious persecution and wanted equality in that respect. He developed inductive reasoning which means the thinker must go beyond the information to make mental connections. Inductive reasoning helped scientific advances in Europe. This helped make Europe one of the most scientifically advanced part of the world. Name of Philosopher: Edmund Burke Dates of Birth and Death : January, to July, A Vindication of Natural Society, Reflections on the Revolution in France, Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents. Believed that beauty consists of obscurity and suggestive thinking rather than intellectual clarity. Member of the Whig Party. He supported the American revolution but opposed the French Revolution. Took a role in the debate over constitutional limits to executive authority to the King. Wanted the people to have more of a say in government to decide what was libel. Had a bug impact on the French Revolution and the response of the British government to the revolution

2 Name of Philosopher: FREDRICH NIETZCHE Dates of Birth and Death : October 15, 1844 to August The Birth of Tragedy, Human, All Too Human, Beyond Good and Evil, The Antichrist God is Dead most famous phrase. Didn t like Christian faith and said it didn t properly practice Jesus s teachings. Attacked the principles of Judaism. Hated anti-semitism. Arsitocracy helped set the stage for his belief of good and evil instead of good and bad and morality. Developed Nihilism which focuses on the death of God. Claims that there is a loss of meaning in the world and that with the death of God comes the loss of any truth. He also believed that humans love power and will do anything to be in power of other humans. But those that crave power are, in truth, weak. Nihilism is present in many European pieces of literature. His beliefs were lectured in many colleges and universities throughout Europe. Name of Philosopher: George Hegel Dates of Birth and Death : August 27, 1770 to November 14, 1831 Phenomenology of Spirit, The Science of Logic, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Elements of the Philosophy of Right Believed that the basis of individual rights lie in property. Economy should be free exchange. Believed in the concept of abstract rights which is the respect that comes with being able to say that a property is mine. Hegel s ideas spread all throughout Europe and they helped in developing existentialism. Hegel s logic had an influence on Marx and many people were developing these ideas. Name of Philosopher: Jean Jacques Rousseau Dates of Birth and Death : June, to July, Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (1750), Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality (1755), Discourse on the Political Economy (1755), The Social Contract (1762)

3 Focused on the importance of freedom. A good government must give citizens individual freedom. He also expressed the dangers of needs and that there is a line between want and need. Men become slaves to their needs. He said that inequality is unnatural and can be remedied. He was one of the first people to inspire communism and socalism and his works inspired governments in Europe. Name of Philosopher: John Stuart Mill Dates of Birth and Death : May, to May, Two Letters on the Measure of Value, Questions of Population, War Expenditure, The Spirit of the Age, Civilization, Claims of Labour, Centralisation, Utilitarianism, The Subjection of Women, On Social Freedom He claimed that actions are right if they evoke happiness or wrong if they produce the opposite of happiness. He defines happiness as the absense of pain. He said that people s achievements should be counted as part of their happiness. Believed heavily in utilitarianism. He said that rights exist for human happiness. His ideas have had influences on popular psychologists of where happiness comes from, like Wilhelm Wundt of Germany, Name of Philosopher: Louis Blanc Dates of Birth and Death : October 29, 1811 to December The Organization of Labor (1839) He was a utopian socialist. He believed that competitive capitalism was bad for human growth. He wanted everyone to have work and highly believed in socialism. His ideas have had a big impact on socialism today in France. His important works have paved the way for socialism.

4 Name of Philosopher: Niccolo Macchiavelli Dates of Birth and Death : May to June The Prince (1513), Discourse on Livy (1517), Art of War (1520), Reform of Florence (1520) He believes that a strong army is key to a strong government and that the state cannot exist without a strong defensive force. He doesn t believe in slavery because this sort of labor cannot be trusted. He believes that the reputation of the ruler is one of the most important aspects to ruling. A ruler who is respected will not probably face treason or conspiracy. He said, it Is much safer to be feared than loved, which describes his methods of ruling. He also believed in a wise and intelligent council to help the ruler be successful. He also said that a ruler must follow his own advice. Macchiavelli s approach to ruling is still used today and was also very popular back when he wrote it. He paved the way for many successful rulers. Name of Philosopher: Rene Descartes Dates of Birth and Death : March to Feb Discourse on the Method (1637), Principles of Philosophy (1644) He believes in the existence of God and that knowledge is key to understanding life. He believed in studying the body to understand humans. Men should seek the sovereign good which provides spiritual pleasure. He thought that one s mind is their own control to happiness. Developed the theory of Dualism where the mind controls the body, and the body has an impact on the mind. His theory of dualism raised many questions and paved the way for scientific discoveries of the human body and anatomy. Name of Philosopher: Robert Owen Dates of Birth and Death : May to November A New View of Society, Report to the County of Lanark, Revolution in the Mind and Practice of the Human Race

5 Socialist. Wanted to help the poor and spread wealth. Didn t like the growth of machinery and wanted men to do work instead. Wanted to develop communities where people could live and grow together. He also believed in secularism and spiritualism. His ideas influenced modern day communism and socialism. Name of Philosopher: Thomas More Dates of Birth and Death : Feb to July Life of Pico della Mirandola (1510) History of King Richard the Third, (1518), Utopia (1516) He opposed the King s separation from the church and denies that the king was the supreme head of the church of England. He highly supported communism. He believed in punishment, state controlled education, multi-religious societies, divorce, and women s rights. He was also a noted humanist. He also believed in reason over faith. More s ideas helped influence communism among other modern beliefs. His belief that the there should be a separation of church and state, although far fetched at the time, has made an impact on today s life. Name of Philosopher: Voltaire Dates of Birth and Death : November 21, 1694 to May History or Charles XII (1731), Lettres Philosophiques (Philosophical letters) (1734), Zadig (1747), Vision of Babouc (1748), The Century of Louis VIV (1751), Micromegas (1752), Essay on Manners (1756), Candide (1759), Philosophical Dictionary (1764) He did not believe in a religious text. He focused on universal laws. He believed that life on Earth is spent waiting to be discovered by those in the moral world. He didn t believe in faith, but in reason, and believed in a super and intelligent being. Skeptical towards the bible. He was not very popular and often angered government officials of many countries. He also angered the church a lot. He was not a believer in democracy and wanted a King to

6 end illiteracy and thought the king was the key to a better republic. He was also critical of religious intolerance and persecution, which many people bought into. He also highly believed in freedom of speech and equality. These ideas are applicable today and people still use them. Name of Philosopher: Adam Smith Dates of Birth and Death: June 5, 1723 July 17, 1790 The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759); An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) (Moral Philosophy) Smith believes that sympathizing with other people is one of our main drives in life. He believes that when people feel morally right, they achieve virtue. Smith separates virtues from moral rules. Moral rules are guidelines that society follows in order to survive. Virtue requires people to share sentiments and identify with other people s feelings. (Political Philosophy) Smith believed in a hands off economy: aka laissez-faire. He believed business should be left to businesspeople and that the government should be left out in business decisions because the government may take advantage of its power to gain its own interests. Adam Smith founded the idea of capitalism, which is the foundation of modern economics. He also provided a theory on morality that helped shape the actions of society. Name of Philosopher: Karl Marx Dates of Birth and Death: May 5, 1818 March 14, 1883 The Communist Manifesto (1848); Capital ( ) Marx believed that humans recognize they have both actual and potential selves. He thought self-realization began with the before mentioned recognition. Marx called his idea of spiritual loss as commodity fetishism in which thing people produce (commodities) have life of their own that humans adapt to. Marx believed in materialism: who deserves to earn what they earn depends on the structure of economy and distribution of wealth. Marx believed capitalism exploited workers and natural resources. He thought that one day the working class would revolt against capitalism. Many nations used Marx s beliefs as a basis for their government structures. Although Marx didn t call it this, his beliefs are now known as communism.

7 Name of Philosopher: John Locke Dates of Birth and Death: August 29, 1632 October 28, 1704 A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689); Two Treatises of Government (1689); An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690); Some Thoughts Concerning Education 1693) Locke believed that political power is the natural right of each man that is grouped into a designated body. People give up this natural power a little in the hands of the government because the government is able to protect and serve much better than an individual. Locke believed that all knowledge came from experience. He believed in a tabula rasa (blank slate) that is filled as people live their lives. (Political) Locke believed that the right to property follows the right to self-preservation (a peaceful state of nature). According to Locke, all men own their bodies completely. John Locke introduced the idea of the right to life, liberty, and property. His theory of self-government brought great inspiration towards the French Revolution. Name of Philosopher: Thomas Hobbes Dates of Birth and Death: April 5, 1588 December 4, 1679 Leviathan (1651) Hobbes believed that leaving nature the way it is without a higher authority is the worst way to live. People would not have a safe right to their belongings, and they would all fear each other and live in chaos. He also believed that each person was equal to every other person. He had a very pessimistic view towards life, and thought this could be fixed with a social contract. The Leviathan is the authorized representative of the people, and thus has a monopoly on violence, taking of property, and other actions that had previously occurred in the state of nature. The Leviathan would be used to enforce rules of society. His beliefs shaped European History by introducing the idea that all men are evil, and cannot be trusted. This idea can be used to justify the need for a government in order to preserve a peaceful society.

8 Name of Philosopher: Oswald Spengler Dates of Birth and Death: May 29, 1880 May 8, 1936 The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes) ( ); Prussiandom and Socialism (Preußentum und Sozialismus) (1920) He believed that history is cyclical. He believed that cultures have destiny and is not dependent on individual choices. He said there were high cultures (ex. classical and western) that had a prime symbol. These prime symbols are influenced by the dominating religion of the high culture. His writings influenced the Beat Revolution. His work also influenced works of other authors such as Toynbee s A Study of History. Name of Philosopher: Denis Diderot Dates of Birth and Death: October 5, 1713 July 31, 1784 Jacques le fataliste et son maître (Jacques the Fatalist and his Master); Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau's Nephew); Encyclopédie He believed in free will and had a materialistic view of the universe. He rejected the idea of progress he thought the push to further technology would fail. He believed that all human behavior was determined by heredity, and not by experience (nature vs. nurture). Many articles in the Encyclopédie attacked the old French society. They were against religious superstition and supported religious toleration. Many other articles pushed for improvements in society to create a more tolerant community.

9 Name of Philosopher: Thomas Malthus Dates of Birth and Death: February 13, December 23, 1834 An Essay on the Principle of Population ( ) Malthus argued that human population increased geometrically while food supply increased arithmetically. Since food is necessary for survival, if human population was not put in check, then starvation would occur. According to Malthus, ways to prevent overpopulation include marrying at a later age (moral restraint), abstaining from procreation, birth control, and homosexuality. Malthus s theory on population influenced Darwin s idea of survival of the fittest. Malthus stated that population would decrease over time because of the lack of food supply, and the most fit would survive. Name of Philosopher: Baron de Montesquieu Dates of Birth and Death: January 18, 1689 February 10, 1755 Persian Letters; The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu believed that there are three types of governments: republican governments, monarchies, and despotisms. He said the spirit of inequality and the spirit of extreme quality could corrupt democracies. The spirit of inequality is when citizens no longer have the same interests as their countries, and therefore want to achieve their own interests at the expense of others, and to acquire political power over them. The spirit of extreme equality is when the people don t want to be equal as citizens, but want to be equal in every respect. In a monarchy, one person governs "by fixed and established laws." In despotic states "a single person directs everything by his own will and caprice. His views helped establish democracy. He introduced the idea of the three branches of government. This idea helps check and balance the workings inside the government. The three branches of government is used in the American government system as well.

10 Name of Philosopher: Jean-Paul Sartre Dates of Birth and Death: June 21, April 15, 1980 Huis-clos (No Exit); The Roads to Freedom He was an existentialist. He believed that people are condemned to be free. He believed that there was an essence to everything. The creator has a purpose for the created and that purpose is its essence. Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator. "Existence precedes essence. Helped spread philosophy of existentialism. Many of his works are used in schools to teach existentialism and modernism.

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