French Revolution. By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang

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1 French Revolution By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang

2 The Terror, a stage of the French Revolution in which the corrupt nobility were publicly executed by the enraged and impoverished common people. Liberty Leading the People painted amidst the July Revolution (1830)

3 Definition of Revolution Revolution: A group of peoples revolting for a common cause that is usually equality or in favor of a new government system. The economic and political reforms that occurred as a result of the revolution is what makes the French Revolution so revolutionary. Change from King Louis XVl, an absolute Monarch, to Napoleon Bonaparte, an Absolute Dictator. Destroyed the old monarchy and centralized the government Nationalism (Love of the nation ) Street Names, clocks, calendars, cards, chess pieces, plays, art, child names, clothes ect. was felt in everyday life

4 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Leaders of the Revolution A famous French writer and philosopher who advocated for the basic principles of the revolution. His statement that it was manifestly contrary to the laws of nature...that a handful of people should gorge themselves with superfluities while the hungry multitude goes in want to necessities perfectly encompasses both the Enlightenment ideals of equality and natural laws that somewhat spurred the Atlantic revolutions as well as the massive social and economic divisions that existed in French society to cause such radical rebellion of the common people. Maximilien Robespierre A revolutionary and radical figure of the French revolution, particularly during the period known as the Terror, the mass executions of those deemed enemies of the revolution by the guillotine. He eventually met his death at the hands of his own movement when he was accused to leading France into tyranny and dictatorship (Strayer 705). Napoleon Bonaparte A highly successful French general who seized power during the chaotic and often violent first revolution and tamed to it an extent, placing more emphasis on such elements as civil equality, a secular law code, religious freedom, and promotion by merit (Strayer 707). He led a series of military conquests that encompassed and unified the vast majority of Europe in a sort of French empire.

5 Leaders of the Revolution (cont.) Jean-Jacques Rousseau Maximilien Robespierre Napoléon Bonaparte

6 Causes: Goals: Large taxes Social divisions/inequality Corrupt, exploitative, and exorbitantly indulgent rulings class Incredibly destitute and exploited common people Spread of European Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality Economic and political corruption and instability American Revolution example More power and representation for the common people of France Abolishment of the corrupt and tyrannical ruling class/nobility Political and social equality and liberty Establish a constitutional form of government

7 Effects Radical and often violent social upheavals/revolts led by common people The Terror (violent attacks and executions of corrupt elite class/monarchs Complete reforms of French society French Nationalism France became a republic Brief universal male suffrage instituted Rising questions about female political equality because of the large part that they played in the revolutions

8 Changes Brief universal male suffrage Became a republic (common French citizens/commoners could participate in government) Increased army (likely due to nationalism) Catholic Church had much less influence in registrations of birth, marriages and death Abolished slavery More religious freedom

9 Continuities Persistence of patriarchy/societal and political male dominance Roman Catholicism remained the most dominant religion France was still largely disliked by other European states (due both to previous prejudices and to the empirical expansion under the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte)

10 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.

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