The Crusades. Chapter 9 2/1/13. The Fall of the Holy Land. A. The Fall of the Holy Land. The Crusades, Military Orders and The Inquisition

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1 Chapter 9 The Crusades, Military Orders and The Inquisition In no way is the Church to be confused with the political community... But, this said, we should not conclude that the message of salvation entrusted to the Church has nothing to say to the body politic in order to enlighten it with the Gospel. ~ John Paul II The Crusades A. The Fall of the Holy Land Rise of Fatimite Muslims in Egypt led to renewed Christian persecutions in first decades of 11th century Seljuk Turks in 2nd half of 11th century, create new militant Islamic nation Seljuks attack Christians in Palestine and Syria The Fall of the Holy Land 4. In 1071, Turks annihilate Byzantine army at Battle of Manzikert & on verge to take Constantinople 5. With two-thirds of Christian world now taken by Muslim forces, Pope Blessed Urban II addresses council of Clermont to help Eastern Christians in

2 The Fall of the Holy Land 6. Pope believed Christianity had to defend itself or be taken over by Islam 7. Christian pilgrims to Holy Land were often robbed, beaten or killed 8. Pope St. Gregory VII was even ready to send 50,000 crusaders into the Holy Land but lay investiture controversy made it impossible 9. Objective: fend off Turkish expansion into Byzantium & free the Holy Land for safe pilgrimage B. Motivation for the Crusaders 1. Religion was a major motivation for soldiers 2. Concept that God would reward those who fought for the cause of defending Christendom Motivation for the Crusaders C. Preaching the Crusades 3. Religious indulgences remission before God of temporal punishment due to sins 4. Other church incentives reduction of taxes, dissolving of debts, protection of crusaders families 1. Appeal to sinners to join crusade as means of reconciliation with God 2. Peter the Hermit of Amiens spoke of the poor treatment of Christians in Palestine D. Byzantium s Response E. Criticism 1. Many westerners optimistic about Crusades & relations between western and eastern churches 2. Crusades allowed positive exchange of ideas & culture 3. The Eastern Empire feared the Crusades as a threat against own territory 4. After sack of Constantinople in 4th Crusade, relations were ruined creating a rift between Eastern and Western Churches 1.St. Bernard of Clairvaux said many soldiers were far from pious after 1st crusade 2. Muslims and Jews in Europe subject to violence 2

3 Criticism 3.St. Francis of Assisi tried to convert Sultan Malik-al-Kamil; two became friends suggesting peaceful dialogue in Holy Land Outcome of Crusades 4. Success in having pilgrimages to Holy Land easier with Franciscans holding key holy places 5. Success in military technology castles, siege engines, catapults, etc. F. Outcome of Crusades 1. Failed in delivering Holy Lands back to Christians 2. Success in holding Turkish expansion for 400 years 3. Success in creating Christian unity transcending nationality & race Outcome of Crusades 6. Crusades encouraged travel & fostered drive to Asia reach China by 13th century 7. Technological & academic achievements due to contact with Arabic world & Greek medicine & math A. The Inquisition 1. Early Christian emperors use their political & military power to protect orthodoxy of the Church saw themselves divinely appointed agents of Heaven 3

4 2. During Middle Ages, Church became tied politically and economically to European life 3. King Peter of Aragon: The enemies of the Cross of Christ... are likewise our enemies. 5. Albigensian fidelity to the Gospel was expressed in poverty and fasting. 6. They believed 2 gods governed the universe one spiritual and good god; the other was physical and evil. 9. Pope Gregory IX didn t like civil authority meddling in matters of Faith so he established the Inquisition as a means of detecting & purging heresy 4. Inquisition began in reaction to Albigensian heresy; they saw the soul as good and the body as evil. 7. They were hostile to Christianity rejected the Mass, the sacraments and ecclesiastical hierarchy; forbade marriage & propagation of human race (preached suicide as a way to obtain spiritual purity) , an Albigensian killed the Papal Legate & so Pope Innocent III called a crusade against them went on for more than 20 years & 1000s died, some by kings burning the heretics at the stake B. Process for Inquisition 1. Special judges (mostly Dominicans & Franciscans) known as Inquisitors decided between life and death for the heretic. 4

5 Process for Inquisition 2. A month long term of grace allowed heretics to confess on their own for lighter sentences 3. Once trial began, a) needed minimum of 2 witnesses to convict someone of heresy (often more was used) b) the names of these accusers were not revealed to the accused individual, though the accused could make a list of his enemies to help the judge determine the fairness of the charges C. Final Verdict in the Inquisition 1. Solemn ceremony where offenses & punishments were announced 2. If guilty of heresy, heretic turned over to civil power who carried out the punishments Final Verdict in the Inquisition 6. Incarceration was for a definite time or for life (recants only from fear of death or had once before abjured past heresy) 7. At height of Inquisition, 3 people were burned for heresy per year 8. Civil authorities dealt much more severely with heretics than papal inquisitors Process for Inquisition 4. Boni viri (good men) were called upon (between men) to decide culpability and punishment to be imparted 5. Most final rulings of the inquisitor usually in accord with boni viri views Final Verdict in the Inquisition 3. Most punishments were humane build a church, a pilgrimage, participate on a crusade 4. Some fines were charged, whippings happened 5. Hardest penalties imprisonment, exclusion from communion D. Inquisition in Spain 1. Started in 1480 and lasted until Spanish Inquisition coincided with the Reconquista, reconquering of Spain by Christians against Muslims and Jews during reign of Ferdinand & Isabella 5

6 Inquisition in Spain 3. When Pope Sixtus IV received reports of torture, unjustifiable punishment & seizure of executed prisoners property, he censured the inquisitors & would have deposed them but Ferdinand and Isabella intervened Inquisition in Spain , Fray Tomas Torquemada made Grand Inquisitor & sets up centralized system for the courts of the Inquisition 5. Spanish Inquisition was mostly a civil tribunal & significantly crueler than papal inquisition; methods frequently violated dignity of the person 6. Even still, less than 2% of those accused of heresy were condemned to death, far less that of the European civil courts of that time 6

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