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1 Chapter 6 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 6 3

2 India s First Empires Chapter 6 Section 3

3 Objectives for this lesson Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present, and future. Understand the rise and decline of ancient civilizations

4 India s First Empires Locating Places Pataliputra Meeting People Chandragupta Maurya (CHUHN druh GUP tuh MAH oor yuh) Asoka (uh SOH kuh) Kalidasa (KAH lih DAH suh) Building Your Vocabulary dynasty (DY nuh stee) stupa (STOO puh) pilgrim (PIHL gruhm)

5

6

7 Mauryan Empire c. 250 B.C.

8 The Mauryan Empire The first Indian empire was the Mauryan Empire. It comprised almost the whole of the area that we know as India. In about 320 B.C., an Indian prince and soldier named Chandragupta Maurya conquered many smaller kingdoms and unified them under his rule. It was also called the Mauryan Dynasty because the rulers that came after Chandragupta were from the same family.

9 Maurya s grandson Ashoka came to power in 270B.C. He was a strong military leader, but after one bloody fight, he vowed he would dedicate his life to peace and follow the teachings of the Buddha. Ashoka was the first great Buddhist king. Many historians consider Asoka the Mauryan dynasty s greatest king. He is known as Ashoka the Great.

10 Mauryan Rule Candragupta Maurya (321 BCE-298 BCE) Candragupta seized control of northern India and created a society dominated by war. controlled his dynasty by retaining a strong army and using spies Candragupta became a monk and gave up his throne. He controlled his empire from his capital. He also set up a postal system that led to communication throughout the empire Asoka ( BCE) The grandson of Candragupta extended Mauryan rule over most of India. Asoka converted to Buddhism stopped waging war rebuilt cities spread Buddhist teachings he built hospitals and new roads sent teachers throughout India to teach Buddhism

11 The empire grew weak after Asoka s death. The kings made poor decisions, and the Mauryan Empire fell.

12 The Mauryan Empire 321 BCE 185 BCE

13 The next great empire in ancient Indian history was the Gupta Empire (about 280 A.D.-550 A.D.) There was 500 years of fighting before another Chandragupta took power and founded the Gupta dynasty. Gupta Empire c. A.D. 600 After Chandragupta died, his son, Samudragupta, took over and expanded the empire. The Gupta empire reunited much of northern India.

14 The Guptas ruled for about 200 years. They grew wealthy from trade with China and kingdoms in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean. Pilgrims were people who often used the trade routes to travel to a religious shrine or site. Visiting pilgrims helped make cities wealthy just as tourists make cities wealthy today. The Guptas were Hindus, and they gave their full support to Hinduism. The golden age of art and learning in India was during the Gupta empire.

15 Extensive Trade: spices gold & ivory

16 The Guptas excelled in music, literature, mathematics, and astronomy. They invented the decimal number system that we currently use. Mathematicians in the Gupta empire developed the symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we use today. They also invented algorithms and the idea of zero. They also made advancements in medicine. They knew how to fix broken bones and how to use herbs to help the sick.

17 Extensive Trade: spices gold & ivory

18 The Vedas of India are hymns and prayers used in religious ceremonies. The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit after the Aryan people came to India.

19 The epics Mahabharata and Ramayana are two poems that are still famous in India today. Both epics tell about warriors and their brave deeds.

20 Kalidasa was a writer who lived during the Gupta dynasty. His poem The Cloud Messenger is one of the most popular Sanskrit poems.

21 India s First Empires What kinds of medical advances were made by Gupta doctors? Gupta doctors could set broken bones and perform surgeries. They also developed medical tools. One doctor even carried out an early form of plastic surgery.

22 India s First Empires Describe trade during the Gupta empire? Indians traded salt, cloth, and iron with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean.

23 India s First Empires Analyze How were Asoka s Buddhist beliefs reflected in his accomplishments as king? His improvements were for the overall good. He built hospitals, roads, and rest stops for travelers; sent missionaries throughout India and Asia; carved Buddha s principles on pillars; built stupas; and practiced religious tolerance.

24 India s First Empires Math Link Why would the development of a number system be important in a civilization that depended on trade? to keep records of transactions and to monitor the exchange of money

25 Vocabulary Review: Take out a sheet of paper. Number 1-8 Write the letter of the answer only. You have 10 minutes. We will switch and grade.

26 Review Vocabulary Early India Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. 1. Each Aryan tribe was led by a. 2. In a, government is led by religious leaders. 3. A is a line of rulers who belong to the same family. 4. A travels to religious places. 5. A is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer. 6. A, is a teacher. 7. A is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. 8. are Buddhist shrines that have the shape of a dome or mound. A. stupa B. guru C. caste D. raja E. pilgrim F. theocracy G. monsoon H. dynasty

27 Vocabulary Answers

28 Early India Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. D 1. Each Aryan tribe was led by a. F 2. In a, government is led by religious leaders. H 3. A is a line of rulers who belong to the same family. E 4. A travels to religious places. A. stupa B. guru C. caste D. raja E. pilgrim F. theocracy G. monsoon H. dynasty

29 Early India Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. G 5. A is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer. B 6. A, is a teacher. C 7. A is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. A 8. are Buddhist shrines that have the shape of a dome or mound. A. stupa B. guru C. caste D. raja E. pilgrim F. theocracy G. monsoon H. dynasty

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