Indian Civilization. Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China. The Indus River Valley Civilization. Map 5.1

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1 Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China Map 5.1 Indian Civilization The Indus River Valley Civilization Mohenjo-daro Agriculture-based society (cotton) Centralization Ecological disasters Aryan invasions 1

2 The Aryans Indus Valley settlements c B.C.E. Uncertain origins Sanskrit Caste System Agricultural / Pastoral Culture Tribal structure Epics: Ramayana, Mahabharata Hinduism Complex, precise ceremonies and rituals Upanishads Philosophical focus The Vedas (Rig Veda) Core text of Hindu temple worship Brahman and Atman: Tat tvam asi. Hinduism Priest and temple + meditation and study Path to ultimate reality, Brahman Path of Asceticism Path of Karma Path of Devotion (bhakti) 2

3 Buddha Siddhartha Gautama ( B.C.E.) Inescapability of suffering and death Enlightened One Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path Emphasis on ethical, moderate living Liberation through knowledge Truth lies within Emperor Ashoka Unified all of India Buddhism as state religion Doctrine of Non-violence Rock Edicts Buddhist monks as missionaries 5.7 Lion capital, from a column erected by King Ashoka, bce. Polished sandstone, 84 (213cm). Sarnath Museum, Uttar Pradesh, India 3

4 Hindu and Buddhist Art Hindu Art Religious in spirit Eroticism Naturalism Unity in all life forms Avatars Buddhist Art Focus on spirituality Calm, transcendent images Buddha, Bodhisattvas Renunciation of worldly pleasures 5.10 Wooden figures representing the first four avatars (incarnations) of the god Vishnu (from left): the fish Matsya, the tortoise Kurma, the boar Varaha, and the lion Narasimha 5.11 Krishna and Radha on a canopy, Indian miniature, gouache on paper, 9 x 7 (22.8 x 18.0 cm). Musee national des arts asiatiques Guimet, Paris, France. 4

5 5.13 Buddha calling on earth to witness, 9 th century ce (Pala period, cd). Bihar, India. Basalt, 18 7/8 (48 cm) high. Musee national des arts asiatiques Guimet, Paris, France The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath Chandra Gupta I (C.E. 320) Chandra Gupta II (ruled ) The Sun of Power Decline of Buddhism, rise of Hinduism Gupta Literature Kalidasa s Sakuntala Sudraka s The Little Clay Cart The Gupta Empire and Its Aftermath Gupta Science Foundation of large universities Mechanics, medicine, mathematics Collapse of Gupta Rule The White Huns Religion vs. Secular Politics 5

6 Map 5.2 Origins of Civilization in China Shang Dynasty ( B.C.E.) Bronze craftsmanship Trade, commerce Metalworking Zhou Dynasty ( B.C.E.) Emperors coordinated separate kingdoms Period of the Warring States ( B.C.E.) Origins of Civilization in China Confucianism Confucius ( B.C.E.) Creating a new, virtuous social order Five inner virtues, two outer virtues Purpose of the State Authority and discipline 6

7 Origins of Civilization in China Daoism Laozi Limitations of human perceptions the Way (dao) Passivity and resignation the soft yield of water cleaves the obstinate stone The Unification of China Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.E.) Shihuangdi, First Emperor Xianyang, capital city Centralization Burning of the Books The Great Wall The Emperor s tomb 5.21 The Great Wall of China, Qin dynasty. Roughly 5,500 miles (8,850 km) long, averaging ( m) wide x ( m) high, plus 13 (3.9 m) at the watchtowers. 7

8 5.22 Army of Shihuangdi (First Emperor) in pits next to his burial mound, ca 210 B.C.E. (Qin dynasty). Painted terracotta, average figure height: 71 ( cm). Lintong, China The Unification of China The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E. - C.E. 20) Gaozu ( B.C.E.) Elaborate central bureaucracy Reconstruction of philosophical texts Aristocratic feuds / civil war Tang Dynasty (C.E ) China s Golden Age The Five Classics Classical Chinese Literature Popularity of poetry Li Bai (C.E ) Li Qingzhao (C.E ) Philosophical writing Mahayana, Hinayana Buddhism Short story 8

9 Visual Arts Blend of new and traditional styles Direct impressions of daily life Shrines, monumental carvings Emphasis on craftsmanship Precision and clarity of design Calligraphy Emphasis on beauty of line 5.23 Pendant in the form of dragon, B.C.E. (Warring States period). China. Perforated, green jade, 7 ¼ x 3 ½ (18.5 x 9.0 cm). Musee national des arts asiatiques Guimet, Paris, France 5.24 Flying horse, from the tomb of Governor-General Zhang, late 2 nd century ce (Han dynasty). Wuwei, China. Bronze, 13 ½ x 1 ½ (34.5 z 3.8 cm). Gansu Provincial Museum, Lanzhou, China. 9

10 5.27 Fengxian Temple. Longmen grottoes, Luoyang, Henan, China. Limestone grotto, 136 (41 m) long x 118 (36 m) deep Chapter 5: Discussion Questions In what ways does the classical art of China reflect the values of the major philosophical schools of the time? Explain, citing specific examples of art. To what extent does literature serve as both an impediment of and a vehicle for reigning governments? Consider the use of literature during the various Chinese dynasties in comparison with the role of literature in the early Greek and Roman cultures. Explain the difference between Buddhism as it first emerged in India from the Hindu tradition versus the Buddhism practiced in China. To what can we attribute these differences? 10

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