Buddhism CHAPTER 6 EROW PPL#6 PAGE 232 SECTION 1

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1 Buddhism CHAPTER 6 EROW PPL#6 PAGE 232 SECTION 1

2 A Human-Centered Religion HIPHUGHES 10 min. video on Buddhism

3 Buddhism from the word Budhi meaning To wake up! Not a god-centered religion The responsibility for spiritual development rests solely on the individual. To be awakened or enlightened about that which is real.

4 Founder = Siddhartha Gautama A Hindu born into the Warrior Caste What was once India but now Nepal Buddha = Awakened One Taught that following his teachings could lead one to obtain Nirvana

5 Siddhartha Gautama was neither a god nor a messenger of a god. He was a human being who pointed to his teachings and not himself. (Clemmons 233)

6 Most Buddhist Live in Asia Buddhism is More than 2500 years old And The Buddha IS the most compassionate person in history (according to Buddhist)

7 Time Line on page 234 Copy IT Know IT

8 A Brief History of Buddhism Began in India but spread throughout Asia

9 Siddhartha Gautama Sometimes called Shakyamuni, meaning Sage of the Shakya clan. His father was king of a small village located in present-day Nepal. His mother, Queen Maya, dreamed that an elephant touched her right side and she conceived. Brahmins, the priestly Hindu caste, interpreted the dream for her: she would bear a son that would either be a great king or a great holy man.

10 As queen Maya travels to her father s house while pregnant she stops at the Lumbini gardens. As she is resting by a tree the baby Buddha emerges from her right side. (ca. 560 BCE) He Takes 7 steps and declares No more births for me. 7 days later Queen Maya died.

11 Siddhartha married at age 16 and had a son. At age 19 he became aware of what the world was really like. (4 Sights) At age 29 he left his life of luxury and took on the life of a wandering ascetic. Meditating for hours and barely eating. Searching for answers to life s questions such as suffering. He wandered for 6 years. He finally reached the enlightenment he sought but, struggled with whether or not to share what he knew. He Taught: Neither indulgence nor asceticism could release one from samsara. INSTEAD The Middle Way was the answer and could lead to moksha He would die of food poisoning at age 80 in 483 BCE

12 Into your notebook spend a few minutes reflecting on the Middle Way. Can you think of a comparison to Christianity? How might following a path that is not extreme in any one way be a good option for someone? Be ready to share!

13 Old Man Four Sights (What Gautama saw beyond the walls) A very sick man A corpse Wandering Holy Man without possessions

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15 The First Council: The Four Councils No successor or writings left behind when the Buddha died 500 Buddhist monks gathered about a year after his death with the intent of preserving the Buddha s teachings through the recitation of memories. The Second Council: 100 yrs later Split between the more conservative Sthaviras (eventually 10 sects) and liberal Mahasanghikas (Eventually 8 Sects). ONLY the Theravada sect (from the Sthaviras) survives to this day. Mahayana Buddhism in existence today is descendent of Mahasanghikas Buddhism

16 Third Council 3 rd century BCE King Ashoka from India the Mauryan Dynasty He had become disenchanted with war and the military & converted to Buddhism Began to rule his country through Buddhist practices such as moral living and pacifism B/C Buddhism grew so fast during this time questionable practices emerged King Ashoka calls the 3 rd council to purify the sangha (entire community of monks, nuns & laity in Buddhism) and its various irregularities By 100 CE Mahayana Buddhism had emerged as a distinct branch of Buddhism Encouraged lay participation Which lead to a variety of interpretations of Buddhist scriptures

17 Buddhism in India Made great strides during the Gupta Dynasty ( CE) Creating an atmosphere where Buddhism could thrive Building monasteries, funding stupas & Buddhist universities Negative Factor monasteries & universities began to drift from Buddhism and moved toward a resurgent Bhakti movement in Hinduism 470 CE invasion of the Huns destroying Buddhist monasteries etc. almost made Buddhism extinct w/in India Pala Dynasty somewhat a revival of Buddhism in India The end of the Pala Dynasty ended Buddhism in India until the 20 th century

18 Buddhist Expansion beyond India Not long after the death of The Buddha Buddhism was introduced to Central Asia but Islam would become the dominant religion of that region Buddhism was introduced to southeast Asia but by the 10 th century again it was eclipsed by Islam. Between European colonialism and communism Buddhism has been devastated yet it has not been totally lost in that region Buddhism found its way to China at the beginning of the Common Era. From there to Far East Asia Japan, Korea & Tibet

19 Buddhism in Modern Times During the twentieth century, the rise of communism triggered the demise of Buddhism in a number of countries. The attempt to eradicate Buddhism was felt first in the former Soviet Union. After World War II, the communist takeover in Asia affected Buddhism in China, Tibet, and parts of Southeast Asia.

20 Buddhism in Tibet Vajrayana Buddhism (aka Tantric Buddhism) Which is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism Emphasis on mantras, rituals, & meditation 14 th Century Tibetan Buddhists came to believe that the leaders of their monasteries were reincarnations of great bodhisattvas who chose to postpone their own opportunity to enter Nirvana. These leaders became known as Lamas The head of the Lamas is known as the Dalai Lama and until 1959 was also considered the political leader of Tibet. They have been exiled in Dharamsala, India

21 Dalai Lama The title given to the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people The title is a hybrid of a Mongolic word and a Tibetan word which loosely translates to Master Guru 14 th Dalai Lama was born in 1935 Recognized as the Dalai Lama in 1939 Enthroned as the Dalai Lama in 1940 but lives in exile (Not in Tibet)

22 Through mental peace, through a general sense of brotherhood, sisterhood, there is greater possibility to achieve real world peace.... True religion must be a sort of destroyer. Understand? Compassion and tolerance, we call destroyers of anger, destroyers of hatred? If you apply different religions in the right way then all have the same aim; that is, a better human being. Dalai Lama (Clemmons 244)

23 Into your notebooks reflect on this question. How might the world be different if we were all destroyers of anger and hatred?

24 He has said in the past that perhaps the role of Dalai Lama is no longer necessary but he has indicated recently that his mind has been changed. On August 9, 2017 the Dalai Lama has said that it is time to begin the preparation to find the 15 th Dalai Lama.

25

26 PART 2 OF PPL#6

27 Sacred Stories & Sacred Scriptures The Buddha wrote no texts nor did his immediate followers For generations stories about him and his teachings were passed along at recitation gatherings Sacred texts developed over 100 s of years Once texts were written they were in a variety of languages and translated often with little regard for accuracy. This caused tensions & even divisions among Buddhists

28 There is no agreement among, or even within the various branches of Buddhism as to which texts are considered sacred and which texts are not. (pg. 247)

29 Scriptures of Theravada Buddhism Early Buddhist Scripture = Tripitaka (Three Baskets) Sanskrit passed down orally Written down around 1 st c BCE in Pali language AKA = Pali Canon Vinaya Pitaka Sutra Pitaka Abidharma Pitaka Belief that it contains the words of The Buddha

30 Vinaya Pitaka Code of Monastic Discipline 277 Rules for Nuns 311 Rules for Monks Sutra Pitaka Discourses attributed to Siddhartha Main topic Morality Story of the Buddha s Birth and his attainment of Nirvana are found in this set of writing Abidharma Pitaka Examines the Buddha s psychological teachings Analyzing Buddhist doctrine Mainly focused towards monks or serious Buddhist students Not necessary the average lay Buddhist

31 Scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism The Lotus of the True Law AKA The Lotus Sutra Attributed to The Buddha Final teachings of The Buddha All people can obtain Enlightenment All living things possess Buddha Nature Perfection of Wisdom How to achieve the perfection of wisdom of a bodhisattva Varjrayana Buddhism Use Mahayana Scripture but add to it Tantric Texts from India & China The Kanjur (Teachings) Tanjur (Transltions of the Treaties) Commentaries on the Kanjur Two Examples of Vajrayana Tantric Techniques: Mandala & Mantra Most Popular Scripture = Tibetan Book of the Dead Writings on death, dying and rebirth

32 Beliefs and Practices The Four Nobel Truths If one is ignorant of the 4 Noble Truths they will remain on the endless cycle of samsara Understanding the 4 Noble Truths leads to the Noble Eightfold Path (The Middle Way) Avoid extremes Take everything in moderation

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34

35

36 Sacred Time No set day for congregational worship Offerings to The Buddha are made at any time either in a Temple or at an altar in the Home Offerings can include Flowers Candles Incense Recitation of the 3 Jewels is common Meditation Central to every branch of Buddhism Mindfulness of Breath & Meditation of Loving-Kindness

37 Puja For Buddhist Monks this takes place in a monastery For Buddhist laity this takes place at a home shrine

38 Festivals Celebrating The Buddha Vishkha (Buddha Day) = Theravada Buddhist Mahayana Buddhists celebrate these events on 3 separate days Celebrating Sangha Rains Retreat (3 months) Time of great holiness It ends with a great festival put on by the laity Monks are presented with new robes

39 Sacred Places & Spaces Monasteries are often connected to Temples For Theravada Buddhist men are especially encouraged to spend part of their lives in a monastery Temple Religious devotions, meditation & instruction Stupas Small mound of stone/brick containing a relic of The Buddha usually near a Temple Other important Buddhist figures A large stupa = Pagoda

40 Buddhist Temple

41 Buddhist Stupas

42 Places of Pilgrimage Lumbini Gardens The birth of Siddhartha Located in Nepal Bodh Gaya Bodh Gaya where the Buddha meditated and gained his Enlightenment

43 Sarnath Deep Park Where Siddhartha preached his 1 st Sermon about the 4 Nobel Truths Where he gained his first disciples Kushinara The death of Siddhartha 1,500 year old red stone statue of the reclining Buddha

44

45 The end End

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