2 I. What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century Began with Kepler, Galileo Ended with Newton
3 A. Science Before the Scientific Revolution Based almost entirely on reasoning Experimental method or observation wasn t used at all Science in medieval times Alchemy Astrology A medieval alchemist
4 B. Factors Leading to the Scientific Revolution Medieval Intellectual Life and Medieval Universities Rise of universities Renewed emphasis on mathematics Contact with non-western societies The Renaissance Renaissance system of patronage Exploration Navigational problems of long sea voyages Better scientific instruments
5 Time for a Philosopher break
6 C. Men and Ideas 1. Rationalism René Descartes The mind cannot be doubted but the body and material world can, the two must be radically different. Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge René Descartes ( ) French philosopher and mathematician Cogito ergo sum ( I think, therefore, I am ) Deductive reasoning which involves using a general principle to draw conclusions about a specific instance Father of analytical geometry The universe functioned in a mechanistic fashion
7 2. Empiricism The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge Roger Bacon Shift toward empiricism a hallmark of the Scientific Revolution Helped lead to the development of the scientific method Roger Bacon In his work Opus Maius, Bacon wrote, There are two modes of knowledge, through argument and experience. Argument brings conclusions and compels us to concede them, but it does not cause certainty nor remove doubt in order that the mind may remain at rest in truth, unless this is provided by experience.
8 3. Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method English philosopher and empiricist Inductive reasoning which involves using concrete facts to extrapolate broader conclusions Argued for experimental methodology
9 The Scientific Method Science as a multiple-step process: 1. Observe an object or phenomenon 2. Develop a theory that explains the object or phenomenon 3. Test the theory with experiments
10 4. Roots of Scientific Thought: a. Aristotle 4th century BCE Greek philosopher and scientist Wrote several scientific works His work laid the foundation for scientific study through the medieval era Gravity/Theory of falling objects Astronomy: Crystal spheres
11 b. Ptolemy 2nd century CE Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer The Almagest (Syntaxis) Geocentric (earth-centered) model of the universe Motion of the planets
12 c. Models of the Universe: Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geocentric: the Earth is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Earth Heliocentric: the Sun is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Sun including the Earth
13 5. Nicholas Copernicus ( ) Polish astronomer and mathematician Commentariolus (1514) Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (1543) Aim to glorify God Sun-centered universe Challenged circular orbits Universe of staggering size Earth no different than any other planet Video 7 min Lutherans/Calvinists condemn later the Catholic Church
14 6. Tycho Brahe ( ) - Danish astronomer Arrogant nobleman video Amassed accurate astronomical data Theorized a system distinct from both the Ptolemaic and Copernican ones Argued that the Moon and Sun revolve around the Earth while other planets revolve around the Sun Most sophisticated observatory of his day Remained an Aristotelian Discovered comet shooting right through crystalline spheres
15 7. Johannes Kepler ( ) video German astronomer and mathematician Student of Tycho Didn t agree with Tycho s interpretation of data Disagreed with Copernicus, claiming that other bodies moved in elliptical motion, as opposed to circular motions Theorized three laws of planetary motion using Tycho s data Planets do not move at uniform speeds in their orbits
16 Kepler's three laws of planetary motion can be described as follows: The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses) An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of Equal Areas) The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)
17 8. Galileo Galilei ( ) Italian mathematician, astronomer Father of Science Telescopes and astronomical discoveries Theory of falling objects; disproved Aristotle uses mathematical formulas Law of inertia Challenges categories of form and matter Galileo s telescopic drawing of the moon
18 Galileo vs. the Catholic Church The church condemned heliocentric conceptions of the universe The Roman Inquisition Galileo s trial Galileo recants, put under house arrest 19 th -century depiction of Galileo before the Inquisition tribunal
19 9. Sir Isaac Newton ( ) video English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician Synthesized the works of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo The Principia; Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) Blends inductive and deductive reasoning Newton synthesized mathematics with physics and astronomy to demonstrate that the entire universe was unified into one coherent system.
20 D. The Significance of the Scientific Revolution Abandonment of ancient and medieval systems Development of the scientific method The Enlightenment
21 Rise of the Scientific Community --Royal Society of London (1662) --Academy of Royal Sciences (1666) The modern scientific method A universe ordered according to natural laws States established academies of science to support and sometimes direct scientific research.
22 Deism Deists believed in God but rejected organized religion Morality could be achieved by following reason rather than the teachings of the church Lord Edward Herbert of Cherbury, founder of deism
23 Deism (continued) The great watchmaker Thomas Paine Thomas Paine
24 Laws discovered by human reason De-Spiritualized and demystified the Universe Mechanical View of the Universe Deistic View of God --God as the cosmic capitalist
25 E. Women and the Sci. Rev. women worked as illustrators and model makers. In Italy, universities offered positions to women Most new academies that furthered professional credentials did not accept female members. Women were well involved in informal scientific communities, attending salons and participating in experiments Madame du Chatelet - believed that women's limited contribution to science was the result of unequal education.
26 Rococo Art
27 II. The Enlightenment Siecle de Lumiere The Century of Light
28 A. What Was the Enlightenment? 1. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18 th century that led to a whole new world view. Progressive, Rationalistic, Humanistic worldview Paris = Center of Enlightenment Optimism about mankind s abilities France = international language, largest country, most freedom, most philosophes from France
29 Nobility conflict with the Capitalistic Middle Class Support for the Middle Class social order against the traditional social order Size and increasing power of the Middle Class New notion of wealth Tension and discord created by the Middle Class
30 The Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment grew largely out of the new methods and discoveries achieved in the Scientific Revolution The equatorial armillary, used for navigation on ships Culminates in the French Revolution
31 Enlightenment Principles A meeting of French Enlightenment thinkers Religion, tradition, and superstition limited independent thought Accept knowledge based on observation, logic, and reason, not on faith Scientific and academic thought should be secular Anti-Cameralism - monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the monarch,
32 2. The French Salon and the Madame de Pompadour 1 2 Salons: gatherings for aristocrats to discuss new theories and ideas Philosophes: French Enlightenment thinkers who attended the salons Science applied to society Public Sphere individuals gather to discuss pol and social Philosophes Madame de Pompadour
33 The Problem of Censorship The attempt of the Old Regime to control new thinking Publishers and writers hounded by censors Over 1000 booksellers and authors imprisoned in the Bastille in the early 1700 s Battling censorship Get around by using satire and double meanings
34 3. The Encyclopédie Major achievement of the philosophes Begun in 1745; completed in 1765 Attempted to illustrate all human knowledge Emphasis on practical science Desire to change the general way of thinking Greater knowledge leads to human progress Emphasized moderation and tolerance Human nature can be molded Inalienable rights and the social contract Knowledge improves goodness Frontspiece to the Encyclopédie
35 The Encyclopédie (continued) Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d Alembert Banned by the Catholic Church Encyclopédie editor Denis Diderot
36 The Encyclopédie Complete cycle of knowledge... change the general way of thinking. 28 volumes. Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated. First published in livres a set. improve the material life of Europeans. Change the way people think.
37 Pages from Diderot s Encyclopedie
38 Pages from Diderot s Encyclopedie
39 Pages from Diderot s Encyclopedie
40 Subscriptions to Diderot s Encyclopedie
41 What did they say??? What is the Enlightenment? Should religion be tolerated? Why three branches? Why did Rome collapse? What main ideas did the Philosophes have? What is the Social Contract? Would you raise a child like Emile? What makes a man civilized? What slavery say about mankind?
42 4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( ) Philosophized on the nature of society and govt The Social Contract Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains and Emile (potentials of education) people are good, but environment will corrupt, therefore free and good state, just laws, wise gov t, popular sovereignty, people have natural rights, will of the majority (submit to General Will), people should create gov t, gov t should enforce people s will Rather than liberation, rationalism and civilization destroys the individual Civilization represents decay, not progress women were best suited to a passive role in social relations. General will asserts that the authentic, long-term needs of the people can be correctly interpreted by a far-seeing minority.
43 5. Thomas Hobbes ( ) Applied rational analysis to the study of government Attacked the concept of divine right, yet supported a strong monarchy Believed that humans were basically driven by passions and needed to be kept in check by a powerful ruler Cameralism
44 6. John Locke ( ) The State of Nature Tabula rasa The Idea of Progress The relativity of Truth
45 Locke (continued) Treatises of Government Rights Property is most sacred Legislative branch #1 People have the right to abolish a bad gov t human development is determined by education and society.
46 7. Baron de Montesquieu ( ) French noble and political philosopher The Spirit of the Laws Despotism could be avoided if political power were divided and shared by a diversity of classes Power must check power Admires British government French parlements must be defenders of liberty Influence in the US
47 Montesquieu (continued) Separation of powers Constitutional monarchy Frontspiece to The Spirit of the Laws best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of gov t (3 branches) checks and balances separation of powers - evolve to US ideal
48 LOCKE AND MONTESQUIEU INFLUENCED THE AMERICAN FOUNDING FATHERS AND THE FRAMERS OF THE CONSTITUTION MORE THAN ANY OTHER PHILOSOPHERS.
49 8. Voltaire ( ) He believed that a good monarch was the best one could hope for. Most famous philosophe Wrote plays, essays, poetry, philosophy, and books Attacked the relics of the medieval social order Championed social, political, and religious tolerance Ridicule oppressive gov t, censorship, injustice and despotism (ruler with absolute power) free speech I disapprove of what you say, but I wil defend to the death your right to say it - praised British limited monarchy, learn about while exiled there, urged religious and political freedom He believed that a good monarch was the best one could hope for. Maybe someday
50 9. Immanuel Kant ( ) "Our existence has a different and far nobler end, for which and not for happiness, reason is properly intended, and which must, therefore, be regarded as the supreme condition to which the private ends of man must, for the most part, be postponed." One of few philosophes to live to see the French Revolution Enlightenment was a personal process release from immaturity More optimistic than Rousseau Dare to Know Enlightenment was an act of personal courage Truth always never lie Rationalism and empiricism
51 10. Women and the Enlightenment Changing views Role of education Equality Mary Wollstonecraft Olympe de Gouges
52 a. Mary Wollstonecraft Declaration of the Rights of Man A Vindication of the Rights of Women Women deserve equality
53 11. Reading Revolution shift from reading aloud texts perceived as authoritative to reading many different texts rapidly, silently, and individually.
54 Enlightened Despotism
55 Frederick the Great of Prussia (r ) Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the Soldier King ). He saw himself as the First Servant of the State. Did abolish torture of prisoners, permitted scholars wide latitude to publish, promoted education, religious toleration No free Prussian serfs Kant loved him as a ruler
56 Catherine the Great (r ) German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
57 1762 Comes to power with military coup = Empress of Russia 1767: Catherine summons the Legislative Commission : Russo-Turkish War Beat Ottomans : Pugachev Rebellion is suppressed Took away all rightsof Serfs after a couple brutal rebellions. 1772: First partition of Poland. 1785: Charter of Nobility. 1793: Second partition of Poland. 1795: Third partition of Poland. Reformer? OR Despot?
58 She extended the borders of Russia, acquiring the lands of Southern Ukraine and the Crimea. She slowly went about reforming the government. Westernized Russia. She directed the building of the Hermitage Museum. Founded the Smolny Institute for Noble Girls, the first of its kind she created a major cultural institution, the Great Theater in Moscow. She established the Free Economic Society (1765) to encourage the modernization of agriculture and industry. She promoted trade and the development of underpopulated regions by inviting foreign settlers, and founding new towns. University of Moscow and Academy of Science became an internationally recognized learning center under her sponsorship. She also increased the number of state and private schools.
59 Reformer? OR Despot?
60 The Partitions of Poland
61 Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c Start at 3 minutesishovivhkey
62 Maria Theresa ( )- Achievements To improve the rural economy and the lives of peasants, she reduced nobles' power over the serfs -Provided Education for Serfs. -Unification of the currency, measures, weights, customs, and taxes. -Created unified judicial code that we called Theresian and was foundation for many today's Central European laws. -Created professional army by maintaining seven year service for every male serf in the kingdom. -Made German language the only acceptable language to communicate in. -Selected gifted men to be her advisers. -Maria decreased the power of the nobility. -The reformation that she lead for Austria was well structured. -She limited the power of labor that nobles would force peasants to do. -The empress had a long reign which spanned forty years. Maria Theresa was kind-heart, courageous, and generous. She respected the rights of others and expected others to respect her rights. Throughout the empire, the peasants were obligated to pay monetary and work dues to their lords. The empress reigned for forty years. She died on November 29, 1780.
63 Joseph II of Austria (r ) His mother was Maria Theresa.
64 Habsburg Family Crest
65 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor 1772: First partition of Poland : He failed to annex Bavaria to Austrian lands. 1781: Declared the Toleration Patent. 1781: Abolition of serfdom and feudal dues. - converted labor obligation to cash payments nobles and peasants hate 1785: He failed to exchange the Austria Netherlands for Bavaria : Austria joined Russia in the Russo-Turkish War, but little was gained. 1795: Third partition of Poland.
66 Joseph put forth an average of 690 decrees a year. (Maria Theresa had made fewer than 100 each year.) Joseph's reforms included abolishing serfdom, ending press censorship and limiting the power of the Catholic Church. Edict of Toleration, Joseph gave minority religions, such as Protestants, Greek Orthodox and Jews, the ability to live and worship more freely. Joseph was considered an "enlightened despot," and his reforms were open-minded, to a point. However, Joseph's main aim was to make the empire more efficient and financially secure. full legal freedom to serfs. elementary education was made compulsory for all boys and girls abolished brutal punishments and the death penalty in most instances Problems got involved in wars when allied with Russia to counter Prussia, tried to centralize medicine = epidemics,
67 Joseph II of Austria
68 The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 1. The democratic revolutions begun in America in 1776 and continued in Amsterdam, Brussels, and especially in Paris in the late 1780s, put every Western government on the defensive. 2. Reform, democracy, and republicanism had been placed irrevocably on the Western agenda.
69 The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 3. New forms of civil society arose -- clubs, salons, fraternals, private academies, lending libraries, and professional/scientific organizations c conservatives blamed it for the modern egalitarian disease (once reformers began to criticize established institutions, they didn t know where and when to stop!)
70 The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 5. It established a materialistic tradition based on an ethical system derived solely from a naturalistic account of the human condition (the Religion of Nature ). 6. Theoretically endowed with full civil and legal rights, the individual had come into existence as a political and social force to be reckoned with.
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