5 Normative Terms Thin: good, bad, evil, right, wrong, should, ought, may, must, virtue, vice, obligation, permission... Thick: courage, integrity, generous, honest, sincere, kind, prudent, foolish, rash, lazy,... Thick terms evaluate as well as describe All compare the way the world is with the way it ought to be
6 David Hume ( )
8 Hume s Ethics Morals have an influence on actions and affections Reason alone can have no such influence So, morality is not a conclusion of reason It consists of no matter of fact
9 David Hume In every system of morality I have met with I have noticed that the author proceeds for some time reasoning in the ordinary way to establish the existence of a God, or making points about human affairs, and then he suddenly surprises me by moving from propositions with the usual copula is (or is not ) to ones that are connected by ought (or ought not ).
10 David Hume This seems like a very small change, but it is highly important. For as this ought (or ought not ) expresses some new relation or affirmation, it needs to be pointed out and explained; and a reason should be given for how this new relation can be inconceivably! a deduction from others that are entirely different from it.
11 Is > Ought Moral reasoning goes from is and is not to ought and ought not How can we go from is to ought? Reason supplies no connection
13 Is => Ought? Why is cruelty wrong? Why is generosity good? No fact of the matter to be found in them
14 Feelings... tis the object of feeling, not of reason. It lies in yourself, not in the object. An action or sentiment, or character is virtuous or vicious; why? Because its view causes a pleasure or uneasiness of a particular kind.
15 Is => Ought? Sentiment or feeling takes us from is to ought Phase 1, Description:... is... Phase 2: Feelings: That arouses a feeling of approbation or disapprobation in me... Phase 3, Normativity:... ought...
16 Slave of the passions Reason is, and ought to be, the slave of the passions. Moral sense: capacity for the feelings that constitute the basis for our moral judgments
17 II. Two-level Theories Surface level Deep level What happens, hidden, at the deep level determines what happens at the surface level
18 Two-level Theories Surface level, to be explained Hidden, deep level, which explains the surface level
19 The Scientific Revolution Copernicus ( ) Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler ( ) Galileo Galilei ( ) Isaac Newton ( )
20 Laws of Nature The signal achievement of the scientific revolution was the development of a system of universal and necessary laws of nature s = 1/2gt2 F = 0 => a = 0 F = ma Fa,b = Fb,a G = gm 1m2/r 2
21 Laws of Nature Universal: apply to all situations, all times Necessary: describe what must happen
22 Scientific Societies British Royal Society (1640s; chartered 1662) French Royal Academy of Sciences (1650s; chartered 1666) Observatories at Paris (1667) and Greenwich (1675) Scientific journals (1665)
23 Enlightenment The Age of Reason We can know the nature and laws of Nature Human beings Society Ethics and politics Immanuel Kant: Dare to know!
24 Morality The Enlightenment, scientific image of man threatens to undermine morality But Enlightenment thinkers approach morality and politics by affirming objective, universal laws, expressing a moral ideal How can these be reconciled?
26 Liberty Classical Enlightenment thinkers (John Locke, Immanuel Kant) take this as a brief for liberty and respect for individual rights Skepticism, undermining of religious authority (Locke and Kant were Protestants) > tolerance for differing viewpoints
27 Enlightenment Denis Diderot ( ): 28 volume Encyclopedia; materialism: This world is only a mass of molecules.
28 Enlightenment Baron Paul d Holbach ( ): materialism, atheism
29 Enlightenment Enlightenment thinkers agree about some basic theses: Truth: there are truths that are absolute, independently of any individual mind, and thus universal.
30 Enlightenment Knowledge: it is possible to have objective knowledge of some of them.
31 Enlightenment Reason: reason is the best way to achieve and justify such knowledge.
32 Enlightenment Progress: acting rationally in response to objective knowledge improves our chances of achieving our aims.
33 Theory of evolution Later in the 19th century: Charles Darwin ( ) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) The Descent of Man (1871) Random mutation, natural selection
34 Humanity These views (materialism, evolutionary theory) are two-level theories Surface, conscious level Underlying, explanatory level Change our concept of what it is to be human We normally aren t aware of the ultimate explanations of our behavior
35 Two-level Theories Surface level, to be explained Hidden, deep level, which explains the surface level
36 Two-level Theories The atomic theory of matter is a two-level theory There is nothing wrong with such theories But they generate puzzles when applied to human beings How do we make sense of ourselves as agents who decide, intend, and act?
37 Wilfrid Sellars ( )
38 Philosophy The aim of philosophy, abstractly formulated, is to understand how things in the broadest possible sense of the term hang together in the broadest possible sense of the term.
39 Two Images For the philosopher is confronted not by one complex many dimensional picture, the unity of which, such as it is, he must come to appreciate; but by two pictures of essentially the same order of complexity, each of which purports to be a complete picture of man-in-theworld, and which, after separate scrutiny, he must fuse into one vision. Let me refer to these two perspectives, respectively, as the manifest and the scientific images of man-in-the-world.
40 Stereoscopic Vision
41 Manifest Image The 'manifest' image of man-in-the-world can be characterized in two ways, which are supplementary rather than alternative. It is, first, the framework in terms of which man came to be aware of himself as man-in-the-world. It is the framework in terms of which, to use an existentialist turn of phrase, man first encountered himself which is, of course, when he came to be man.
42 Objects The basic objects of the manifest image: persons, animals, lower forms of life and merely material things, like rivers and stones.
43 Manifest Image
44 Scientific Image The scientific image arises out of the manifest image, by the scientific method: careful observation and measurement, hypothesis testing, experimentation But something new happens with the introduction of theoretical entities (atoms, microparticles, genes, etc.) that are unobservable but causally active
45 Macro v. micro Manifest image: Macro-level Scientific image: Micro-level
46 The Images Manifest image: rationality, morality, responsibility, freedom, practical reason Scientific image: governed by causal laws, value-free, purely determined
47 Clash of the Images How, then, are we to evaluate the conflicting claims of the manifest image and the scientific image thus provisionally interpreted to constitute the true and, in principle, complete account of man-in-the-world?
49 Normativity the irreducibility of the personal is the irreducibility of the 'ought' to the 'is'.
50 The Space of Reasons The irreducible element of the manifest image is normativity The scientific image describes the realm of law But in the manifest image we conceive ourselves as bring in the space of reasons Not a different realm, but a different way of seeing the same realm
52 Manifest image Surface: We think of ourselves as free We act for reasons We act rightly or wrongly, virtuously or viciously We take responsibility
53 Scientific image Depth: We are determined by something we aren t conscious of Our reasons are mere rationalizations Morality is either nonsense or reduces to something else Since we are not free, we have no responsibility
AP Euro Unit 5/C18 Assignment: A New World View Be a History M.O.N.S.T.E.R! Vocabulary Overview Annotation The impact of science on the modern world is immeasurable. If the Greeks had said it all two thousand
The Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution CHART #1: EVOLUTION OF ASTRONOMY YEARS THEORY RELIGIOUS IMPACT PTOLEMY COPERNICUS BRAHE KEPLER GALILEO Chart #2: Breakthroughs in Medicine
Chapter 14 Scientific Revolution During the 16th and 17th centuries, a few European thinkers questioned classical and medieval beliefs about nature, and developed a scientific method based on reason and
Lesson 1 The Scientific Revolution ESSENTIAL QUESTION How do new ideas change the way people live? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How were the scientific ideas of early thinkers passed on to later generations? 2.
CLASS #17: CHALLENGES TO POSITIVISM/BEHAVIORAL APPROACH I. Challenges to Confirmation A. The Inductivist Turkey B. Discovery vs. Justification 1. Discovery 2. Justification C. Hume's Problem 1. Inductive
Chapter 6 Scientific Revolution During the 16th and 17th centuries, a few European thinkers questioned classical and medieval beliefs about nature, and developed a scientific method based on reason and
Robert W. Strayer Ways of the World: A Brief Global History First Edition CHAPTER XVI Religion and Science 1450 1750 Scientific Revolution A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science The Scientific
THE AGE OF REASON PART II: THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1700-1789 I BACKGROUND: 1. Refers to an intellectual movement, which stood for rationalist, liberal, humanitarian, and scientific trends of thought. The erosion
Background to Early Modern Philosophy Philosophy 22 Fall, 2009 G. J. Mattey Modern Philosophy The modern period in Western philosophy began in the seventeenth century In its primary sense, modern philosophy
AP European History Mr. Mercado (Rev. 08) Chapter 18 Toward a New World-View Name A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately
The Age of Enlightenment Path to the Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement by those greatly impressed with the scientific revolution Use systematic logic and reason to solve the problems of
Name Date CHAPTER 22 Section 2 RETEACHING ACTIVITY The Enlightenment in Europe Multiple Choice Choose the best answer for each item. Write the letter of your answer in the blank. 1. The new intellectual
1 (Quote of Origen, an early Christian theologian not a saint) 2 Christians once spoke of God making Himself known in two different ways, or through two books : the Book of Revelation and the Book of Nature.
Readings. A world redrawn: Who was Copernicus and what was his claim to fame? How did he defend his beliefs? Galileo s Daughter: Give three important facts about Galileo s life with regards to the Scientific
Philosophy (PHIL) 1 PHILOSOPHY (PHIL) PHIL 2. Ethics. 3 Units Examination of the concepts of morality, obligation, human rights and the good life. Competing theories about the foundations of morality will
CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, 1450-1750 Enlightenment What was the social, cultural, & political, impact of the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment? The Scientific Revolution was
Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, XIII, 2011, 2, pp. 7-11 Guest Editor s Preface On the premises of the mind-body problem: an unexpected German path? Stefano Semplici Università di Roma Tor Vergata
Early Modern Moral Philosophy Lecture 5: Hume The plan for today 1. The mythical Hume 2. The motivation argument 3. Is Hume a non-cognitivist? 4. Does Hume accept Hume s Law? 5. Mary Astell 1. The mythical
1 2 The parallel between nature and Scripture is so complete, we must necessarily believe that the person who is asking questions of nature and the person who is asking questions of Scripture are bound
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CD5590 LECTURE 1 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2005 1 Course Preliminaries Identifying Moral
1. Define Scientific Revolution. Name: Period: 10 points Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment Study Guide 2. Name the scientist who incorporated scientific thought with philosophy and helped develop the
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society
POLI 342: MODERN WESTERN POLITICAL THOUGHT THE POLITICS OF ENLIGHTENMENT (1685-1815) Lecturers: Dr. E. Aggrey-Darkoh, Department of Political Science Contact Information: email@example.com College
The Age of Enlightenment By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 10.13.17 Word Count 927 Level 1040L A public lecture about a model solar system, with a lamp in place of the sun illuminating the faces
A New Way of Thinking...modern consciousness. What The Renaissance and the Reformation facilitated the breakdown of the medieval worldview. The physical world could be managed and understood by people.
Michael Lacewing Hume s emotivism Theories of what morality is fall into two broad families cognitivism and noncognitivism. The distinction is now understood by philosophers to depend on whether one thinks
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY FALL 2013 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS PHIL 2300-004 Beginning Philosophy 11:00-12:20 TR MCOM 00075 Dr. Francesca DiPoppa This class will offer an overview of important questions and topics
Phil 1103 Review Also: Scientific realism vs. anti-realism Can philosophers criticise science? 1. Copernican Revolution Students should be familiar with the basic historical facts of the Copernican revolution.
AP World History Notes Chapter 16: Science and Religion (1450-1750) Popular interest in science spread throughout Europe More people used science to explain the universe, not the Church Monarchs set up
Can Rationality Be Naturalistically Explained? Jeffrey Dunn Abstract: Dan Chiappe and John Vervaeke (1997) conclude their article, Fodor, Cherniak and the Naturalization of Rationality, with an argument
The University of Alabama at Birmingham 1 Department of Philosophy Chair: Dr. Gregory Pence The Department of Philosophy offers the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in philosophy, as well as a minor
HUME To influence the will, morality must be based on the passions extended by sympathy, corrected for bias, and applied to traits that promote utility. Hume s empiricism Hume is a strict empiricist, i.e.
1 Part One: Hub Dates Directions: Study the dates and accompanying information below. You will be quizzed on the information. All Hub Dates Exams are cumulative. 1540-1690 Scientific Revolution 1543 Copernicus,
The Enlightenment Main Ideas Eighteenth-century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of life. People gathered in salons to discuss the ideas of the philosophes.
World-Wide Ethics Chapter One Individual Subjectivism To some people it seems very enlightened to think that in areas like morality, and in values generally, everyone must find their own truths. Most of
What did we just learn? Let s Review Key Features of the Renaissance rise of humanism ( focus on ancient Greek and Roman civilization and the dignity and worth of the individual). independence and individualism
1 In 730, the Byzantine Emperor banned the use of icons. The Pope was outraged to hear that the Byzantine Emperor painted over a painting of Jesus. The Byzantine Emperor and the Pope continued to disagree
Did God Use Evolution? Observations From A Scientist Of Faith By Dr. Werner Gitt If you are searched for the book Did God Use Evolution? Observations from a Scientist of Faith by Dr. Werner Gitt in pdf
Of Skepticism with Regard to the Senses David Hume General Points about Hume's Project The rationalist method used by Descartes cannot provide justification for any substantial, interesting claims about
PrductivityStudent Toward a New Worldview 1540-1789 Major Breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution Scientific Thought in 1500 What is natural philosophy? The study of the nature of universe, its purpose,
Enlightenment Challenges Society Religion Church = Freedom Limiting Institution Most philosophes anticlerical (against influence of a hierarchical, institutional Church organization) Not necessarily against
A Brief History of Thinking about Thinking Thomas Lombardo "Education is nothing more nor less than learning to think." Peter Facione In this article I review the historical evolution of principles and
1 Mini-Unit #2 Enlightenment (new ideas) Assessment: Determine which 2 Enlightenment thinkers had the most impact on the rights of people. Defend your choices with specific evidence from the background
Oxford Scholarship Online Abstracts and Keywords ISBN 9780198802693 Title The Value of Rationality Author(s) Ralph Wedgwood Book abstract Book keywords Rationality is a central concept for epistemology,
A Backdrop To Existentialist Thought PROF. DAN FLORES DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY HOUSTON COMMUNITY COLLEGE DANIEL.FLORES1@HCCS.EDU Existentialism... arose as a backlash against philosophical and scientific
Stout s teleological theory of action Jeff Speaks November 26, 2004 1 The possibility of externalist explanations of action................ 2 1.1 The distinction between externalist and internalist explanations
Hoong Juan Ru St Joseph s Institution International Candidate Number 003400-0001 Date: April 25, 2014 Theory of Knowledge Essay Word Count: 1,595 words (excluding references) In the production of knowledge,
The Enlightenment The Age of Exploration led people to believe that truth had yet to be discovered The Scientific Revolution questioned accepted beliefs and witnessed the use of reason to explain the laws
Moral Objectivism RUSSELL CORNETT University of Calgary The possibility, let alone the actuality, of an objective morality has intrigued philosophers for well over two millennia. Though much discussed,
Name: Due Date: Chapter 16 Reading Guide The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 PART IV THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD, 1450-1750: THE WORLD SHRINKS (PG. 354-361) 1. The title for this unit is The World Shrinks
Fall 2016 Department of Philosophy Graduate Course Descriptions http://www.buffalo.edu/cas/philosophy/grad-study/grad_courses/fallcourses_grad.html PHI 548 Biomedical Ontology Professor Barry Smith Monday
PL 406 HISTORY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY Fall 2009 DAY / TIME: T & TH 10:30 11:45 A.M. INSTRUCTOR: PROF. JEAN-LUC SOLÈRE OFFICE: DEP. OF PHILOSOPHY, # 390 21 Campanella Way, 3 rd Floor TEL: 2-4670 OFFICE HOURS:
The Enlightenment I N T E R A C T I V E S T U D E N T N O T E B O O K How have the ideas of the Enlightenment influenced modern government? P R E V I E W Carefully analyze the image in the Introduction
Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1A: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method Professor Tim Mazzarol UWA Business School MGMT6791 UWA Business School DBA Program firstname.lastname@example.org
PHIL 480: Seminar in the History of Philosophy Building Moral Character: Neo-Confucianism and Moral Psychology Spring 2013 Professor JeeLoo Liu [Handout #12] Jonathan Haidt, The Emotional Dog and Its Rational
1. Which statement best describes the world of Christianity in 1500 C.E.? a. b) It was on the defensive against an expanding Islamic worl a) It was rapidly expanding into Africa and Asia. c) It was for
Philosophy FIO Philosophy Philosophy is a humanistic subject with ramifications in all areas of human knowledge and activity, since it covers fundamental issues concerning the nature of reality, the possibility
Chapter Summaries: Introduction to Christian Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 In chapter 1, Clark reviews the purpose of Christian apologetics, and then proceeds to briefly review the failures of secular
Philosophy Courses Fall 2016 All 100 and 200-level philosophy courses satisfy the Humanities requirement -- except 120, 198, and 298. We offer both a major and a minor in philosophy plus a concentration
Philosophy PHILOSOPHY AS A WAY OF THINKING WHAT IS IT? WHO HAS IT? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A WAY OF THINKING AND A DISCIPLINE? It is the propensity to seek out answers to the questions that we ask
GREAT PHILOSOPHERS: Thomas Reid (1710-1796) Peter West 25/09/18 Some context Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Lucretius (c. 99-55 BCE) Thomas Reid (1710-1796 AD) 400 BCE 0 Much of (Western) scholastic philosophy
Modern Europe- Cooke Name: January, 2015 Modern Europe Midterm Study Guide The exam is on Thursday, January 22 nd at 8:00 am (arrive by 7:50 am). Location: B435, B436 and B437 (exact room assignments for
The Need for Metanormativity: A Response to Christmas Douglas J. Den Uyl Liberty Fund, Inc. Douglas B. Rasmussen St. John s University We would like to begin by thanking Billy Christmas for his excellent
Philosophy 168 Descartes Fall, 2011 G. J. Mattey Introductory Remarks René Descartes Born 1596, La Haye, France Died 1650, Stockholm, Sweden Single One daughter, died at age six Primary education at La
ON CAUSAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING OF BELIEF CHANGE A. V. RAVISHANKAR SARMA Our life in various phases can be construed as involving continuous belief revision activity with a bundle of accepted beliefs,
A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7 Kantian Deontology Deontological (based on duty) ethical theory established by Emmanuel Kant in The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Part of the enlightenment
FSS 7010 (Wednesdays 1PM-3PM) Course Evaluations: POLITICAL SCIENCE 3102 (B) Sascha Maicher (Fall 2014) 30% Three assigned summaries. Each should be 3 pages long, double spaced. There should be two pages
Y2 Lesson 20 Page numbers, version 12/2/15 p339: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Social Contract All page numbers below are from History of Philosophy unless otherwise indicated. His explanation of social authority
MÈTODE Science Studies Journal, 5 (2015): 195-199. University of Valencia. DOI: 10.7203/metode.84.3883 ISSN: 2174-3487. Article received: 10/07/2014, accepted: 18/09/2014. IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD A MYTH?
The Role of Science in God s world A/Prof. Frank Stootman email@example.com www.labri.org A Remarkable Universe By any measure we live in a remarkable universe We can talk of the existence of material
Philosophy of Economics and Politics Lecture I, 12 October 2015 Julian Reiss Agenda for today What this module aims to achieve What is philosophy of economics and politics and why should we care? Overview
Humanities 3 V. The Scientific Revolution Lecture 22 A Mechanical World Outline The Doctrine of Mechanism Hobbes and the New Science Hobbes Life The Big Picture: Religion and Politics Science and the Unification
KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism
Nichomachean Ethics Philosophy 21 Fall, 2004 G. J. Mattey The Highest Good The good is that at which everything aims Crafts, investigations, actions, decisions If one science is subordinate to another,
1. INTRODUCTION MAKING THINGS UP Under contract with Oxford University Press Karen Bennett Cornell University The aim of philosophy, abstractly formulated, is to understand how things in the broadest possible
Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2015 Class #1 - The Scientific Revolution and Descartes Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Slide 1 History of Modern Western