Romans in Britain HOCPP 1092 Published: May, 2007 Original Copyright July, 2006

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2 Thank you for your purchase from In the Hands of a Child Your Premiere Lapbook Provider since 2002!! Romans in Britain HOCPP 1092 Published: May, 2007 Original Copyright July, 2006 Authors: Katie Kubesh Niki McNeil Kimm Bellotto For information about other products available from In the Hands of a Child Call or visit our website at Entire contents of this Project Pack 2007 In the Hands of a Child Pierce Street Coloma, MI Permission is hereby granted to the individual purchaser to reproduce student materials in this project pack for noncommercial individual or classroom use only. In the Hands of a Child gives permission for one copy of all written material to be copied and or printed. Classroom teachers have permission to reproduce one copy for each student in class. Members of co-ops or workshops have permission to reproduce one copy for up to 10 children per unit. Reproducible graphics may be reprinted as many times as needed. Permission is not granted for school wide or system wide reproduction of materials. Printed in the USA. 2

3 Table of Contents Guide Page 8 Roman Empire Page 8 Romans Invade Britain Page 9 Iron Age Page 10 Roman Army Page 12 Roman Gods Page 14 Roman Lifestyle Page 14 Roman Roads Page 16 Hadrian s Wall Page 17 Departure of Romans Page 18 Roman Legacy Page 19 Anglo-Saxons Page 20 Vocabulary Page 21 Activity List Page 24 Activity 1 Page 25 Activity 2 Page 29 Activity 3 Page 32 Activity 4 Page 34 Activity 5 Page 37 Activity 6 Page 41 Activity 7 Page 43 Activity 8 Page 48 Activity 9 Page 50 Activity 10 Page 52 Activity 11 Page 55 Activity 12 Page 57 Activity 13 Page 60 Activity 14 Page 63 Activity 15 Page 65 Activity 16 Page 67 6

4 Activity 17 Page 69 Activity 18 Page 72 Activity 19 Page 74 Activity 20 Page 76 Activity 21 Page 81 Activity 22 Page 83 Activity 23 Page 85 Activity 24 Page 88 Activity 25 Page 90 Activity 26 Page 93 Folder Instructions Page 99 7

5 Romans in Britain Roman Empire Take one ancient city and slowly begin adding more and more cities followed by entire countries and soon there will be an empire. The Roman Empire encompassed most of what is now Western Europe. It included the countries of England (then called Britannia), Spain (Hispania), France (Gaul), Greece (Achaea), the Middle East (Judea), and Northern Africa. The Romans were people from the city of Rome, located in what is now Italy. During ancient times, there were almost one million people living in Rome. As the Romans became more and more successful in their conquests, they became more wealthy and powerful. This enabled them to expand their empire even more. This power and wealth began with the Punic Wars. In 246 BC, the first in a series of wars called the Punic Wars began. During the three Punic Wars, which ended in 146 BC, the Romans lost many battles. They were, however, strong enough to capture cities in Northern Africa, including Carthage. Carthage was a powerful trade center and had been a big threat to Rome. When the Romans defeated Carthage, Rome became the most powerful state in the Mediterranean. 8

6 Romans Invade Britain Soon, the Romans realized that land further away from them would also help to make Rome more wealthy and powerful. They began conquering lands farther and farther away. By 130 BC, the Romans ruled all of Italy, Greece, and most of Spain. But they wanted more. Many countries are invaded because they have an alliance with another country. This is why the Romans first invaded Britain. The Britons were helping the French (Gauls) fight the Romans and the leader of the Roman Army in Gaul decided to retaliate against Britain for helping the enemy. The Roman Army, led by Julius Caesar, entered Britain in 55 BC. The Britons proved to Caesar and his army that they would need more force in order to invade Britain. The next year, Caesar returned to Britain with an army of 30,000 soldiers. The Britons were not prepared for this. In 54 BC, the Roman Army began conquering the Briton tribes one by one. Soon, the Roman Army was the major military force in Britain. With Caesar and his army in Britain, the French (Gauls) began to rebel. In addition, the weather turned stormy and Roman ships were unable to land on the island. Caesar was forced to withdraw his troops from Britain and return to France. The Roman Army did not enter Britain again for over 90 years. Timeline 55 BC: Caesar fist invades Britain. Stormy weather causes Caesar and his troops to withdraw. 54 BC: Caesar s second invasion of Britain. Trouble in Gaul forces Caesar and his troops to return to France to settle problems. 54 BC-43 AD: Roman influence increases in Britain through merchants and traders. 5 AD: King of Catuvellauni tribe (Cymbeline) named King of Britain by Rome. 43 AD: Roman Army led by Aulus Plautius invades Britain. Roman Army defeats Caratacus and troops and conquers south east region of Britain. Caratacus flees to Wales. 43 AD: Emperor Claudius arrives in Britain with reinforcement. Eleven tribal kings surrender to the Roman Army. Aulus Plautius appointed Governor of Britain AD: Romans conquer southern region of Britain and declare Britain part of the Roman Empire AD: London founded. Roman Army builds network of roads across South Britain. 51 AD: Caratacus s troops conquered and Caratacus is captured and taken to Italy where Claudius pardons him. With the Roman Army gone, Roman traders began going to Britain and trading 9

7 with the tribes that lived there. The traders began to realize that Britain would make a valuable addition to the Roman Empire and urged the army to return. In 43 AD, The Romans invaded Britain. Unlike their first invasion, the Romans were not invading Britain because of their alliance with France. The Roman Army invaded the island of Britain because they wanted to conquer it for their empire. In the first invasion, the emperor Claudius sent an army of 40,000 men. Some tribes quickly made peace with the Roman Army, known as a fighting force. Other Briton tribes, who were ferocious warriors, battled the Romans for many years. The Romans finally conquered most of Britain and brought with them a new style of leadership, a road structure, towns, and homes. With the Roman invasion, Britain became one of the wealthiest provinces in the Roman Empire. The Iron Age Today, when we think of Britain, many of us may picture queens and kings and one United Kingdom. But Britain was not always one United Kingdom. Before the Romans invaded Britain, the country was divided up into individual tribes. Many kings ruled the island, and each king had a certain section he controlled. Each separate tribe had a similar government and similar way of life. Each tribe had different territories and different types of currency. Each tribe was organized into an individual kingdom and the king was the monarch of that tribe. Members within the tribe had their own responsibilities and jobs. Timeline (continued) AD: Boudicca, wife of King Prasatugas, of the Iceni tribe leads a revolt against the Romans. The Romans capture her army. 63 AD: Joseph of Arimathea sent to Britain to convert the people to Christianity AD: Romans complete conquest of Britain making all of Britain part of the Roman Empire. 122 AD: Construction on Hadrian s Wall begins and is completed in 139 AD. 142 AD: Antonine Wall built AD: Scottish tribes cross Hadrian s Wall. 212 AD: Roman citizenship granted to all people of the Roman Empire, including those in Britain. 216 AD: Britain divided into two provinces, Britannia Superior and North Britannia Inferior AD: Roman general Posthumus rebels against Roman Empire and declares himself Emperor of France (Gaul) and Britain (Britannia). 284 AD: Roman Empire divided into east and west AD: Anglo-Saxons begin raids. 10

8 Many of the tribes were of Anglo-Celtic origin, but some originated from other European countries. The Parisi, Arebates, and the Cantium were tribes that originated in Europe and settled in Britain. This time period in Britain was called the Iron Age. The native people crafted everyday items from metal including currency and weapons. Metal played an important role in everyday life. Before the Romans invaded, the people of Britain made their living from raising livestock like cattle and sheep. They also grew cereal and wheat crops. Each tribe traded with each other as well as with traders who came from other countries in Europe. The Britons liked to trade for goods instead of money. With this type of barter system the tribes of Britain were able to gain certain items they needed by exchanging something of their own with a neighboring tribe or trader. Timeline (continued) 312 AD: Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity and makes Christianity legal in the Roman Empire. 360 s AD: Britain attacked by Scots, Picts, Franks, and Saxons AD: Romans begin leaving Britain. 400 AD: End of Hadrian s Wall AD: Saxons raid Britain. 409 AD: Roman officials expelled from Britain. 410 AD: Last Romans leave Britain and Britain becomes independent. There were a few problems in Britain at this time. For example, there was no road system for traders to use to transport goods between tribes or countries. They traveled on worn tracks, which made transporting goods such as perishable items like fruits and vegetables almost impossible because it took too long to travel the distance from south territories to the northern ones. Tribes were isolated and did not like other tribal members to come on their land. The only people who had access to all territories were the traders. Another problem that the tribes faced was exchanging currency. Each tribe had different currencies and it was difficult for them to trade, so many just exchanged goods from their region instead of money. This worked well when trading took place between tribes, but it did not work when trading with other countries that wanted currency for their goods. 11

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