The United States Expands West. 1820s 1860s

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1 The United States Expands West 1820s 1860s

2 President Martin van Buren - #8 Democrat (VP for Jackson s 2 nd term) In office Promised to continue many of Jackson s policies Firmly opposed the American System (same as Jackson) and the rising popularity of the Whig Party Supported a multi-party political system in the US by claiming that political parties were necessary to check governmental abuse of power Shortly after he took office the Depression of 1837 set in: Started by Jackson s order to pay for federal lands with only silver and gold thereby causing state banks to collapse Widespread monetary and job losses in the US

3 The Texas Revolution Weary of political in-fighting many Americans began to move West and took up residence in Texas (controlled my Mexico) With a growing American population many new Texans began to push for independence Former US senator Sam Houston organizes a volunteer army of Texans to fight for independence from Mexico Many Texans join the cause William Travis, Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett Mexican Army led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Battle of the Alamo At the height of the Texas Revolution, Santa Anna s army dealt the Texans a crushing defeat Battle of San Jacinto Texan forces finally defeated Santa Anna s army The Republic of Texas becomes its own country Houston Santa Anna Travis Bowie Crockett

4 President William H. Harrison - #9 Nicknamed Old Tippecanoe for his actions at the battle that defeated the Shawnee in 1811 Campaign slogan Tippecanoe and Tyler too First candidate of the Whig Party Party formed specifically to oppose Andrew Jackson s growth of governmental power Elected 1841 Shortest serving president and first president to die in office (served for 1 month) Gave his inauguration speech (the longest in presidential history) on a very cold day in March and refused to wear a coat. In turn he caught pneumonia Succeeded by Vice-President John Tyler Looked to open trade and political relations with the new Republic of Texas

5 MANIFEST DESTINY The idea that God has willed the United States to span the continent of North America from coast to coast ( from sea to shining sea ) Legitimatized American expansion to the West

6 The Road to the Missouri Compromise Northwest Ordinance Northwest territories - land acquired from the British after their defeat in the Revolutionary War. Strictly forbade slavery in these new territories Louisiana Purchase Doubled the size of the US Question remained how would this new land be divided up politically?

7 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 To keep the balance of power (representation) between slave states and free states in Congress, the Missouri Compromise was passed in Missouri entered as slave state. Maine entered as free state. Slavery was outlawed in Louisiana Territory north of the 36/30 line of latitude.

8 President James K. Polk - #11 Democrat, Promised to continue Jacksonian Democracy 4 Presidential goals: Reestablish independent treasury system Lower the national tariff Settle dispute with Britain over Oregon territory Acquire California Led the push for manifest destiny and the annexation of Texas Texas officially annexed in 1845

9 Mexican American War, Polk wanted to expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean. Planned to buy California from Mexico but Mexico would not sell. Mexico upset over border dispute with United States Mexico claimed the boarder was at the Nueces River US claimed the boarder was at the Rio Grande Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to the disputed area to enforce the US border. Thornton Affair US Army Captain Seth Thronton s patrol was ambushed by a group of Mexican soldiers under Anatasio Torrejon This incident caused the US to declare war on Mexico Taylor Santa Anna

10 Mexican American War Taylor Scott Kearny After war was declared, Polk orders a 3 prong attack on Mexican territory Zachary Taylor will invade from the north Winfield Scott will attack from the east Stephen Kearny will push into California General Santa Anna was recalled back into service to command the Mexican Army US and Mexican forces engage in several pitched battles leading toward Mexico City Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterrey, Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo, Chapultapec Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo officially ended the Mexican American War in 1848 (US victory) US gained California and much of the Southwest and Rocky Mountains

11 The War s Aftermath: The Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso - Introduced an amendment to the Treaty of Guadelupe- Hidalgo to forbid slavery in newly acquired territory David Wilmot, Representative from Pennsylvania The amendment did not pass the Senate & never became law In some sense, the Mexican War became the opening shots of the Civil War Issues left unanswered by the Mexican War would fuel the beginnings of the American Civil War Many of the military officers during the Mexican War became key figures in the American Civil War Robert E. Lee Thomas Jackson Jefferson Davis Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman

12 Gold Discovered in California Discovery of gold in California Gold discovered at Sutter s Mill Gold Rush Many Americans flock to California to get rich ( Forty Niners ) California residents petitioned Congress to grant statehood as a free state in 1849 California s proposed constitution forbade slavery

13 Compromise of 1850 Free states were beginning to outnumber slave states (representation in Congress was thrown off balance). Many Southerners started to see their representation being taken away (the question was what would be next) In order to appease the two sides, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of A. California would be admitted as free B. Utah and New Mexico Territories open to popular vote on slavery C. Slave trade abolished in D.C. D. Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Law

14 Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed in 1854 by Senator Stephen Douglas Said that Nebraska and Kansas would enter the Union under the principles of popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty States decide for themselves, BY VOTE, whether they wanted to be free or they wanted to hold slaves. Act nullified the Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery in the forever free territories of the LA Purchase The States Rights issue was revitalized

15

16 Bleeding Kansas Settlers from Northern states and Southern states flocked to Kansas; each side wanting to outnumber the other Violence erupted over the issue of popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty was not working.

17 John Brown Famous abolitionist who got his start in Bleeding Kansas Fiery abolitionist supporter Led anti-slavery forces in the wars in Bleeding Kansas Battle of Black Jack Brown led a surprise attack on a pro-slavery camp in Kansas and killed or captured all their forces (Brown began to be noted for his brutality) Battle of Osawatomie Brown s men failed to defend the town of Osawatomie against a raid by pro-slavery forces The aftermath of this battle caused Brown s fury to grow even more against slavery and would ultimately lead to his plans to begin a slave uprising in the US Pottawatomie Massacre 1856 Brown led his men into a large pro-slavery area of Kansas and captured and killed several people execution style Brown continued to attack numerous pro-slavery held areas in Kansas in a reign of terror that included the execution of men, women, and even some children

18 Election of 1860 Contention in the US Abraham Lincoln John Breckinridge John Bell Stephen Douglas

19 South Carolina Secedes Upon hearing of the news of Lincoln s election, South Carolina seceded from the Union. secede - to break away or leave 10 other states would follow South Carolina and create a new country in America known as the Confederate States of America (CSA)

20 Ticket Out the Door: Explain, in detail, how 4 of the following people contributed to the growing sectionalism emerging in the United States between 1820 and Four paragraphs total (1 for each person, 4-5 sentences each). Use additional/outside research if necessary. Martin van Buren William H. Harrison James Polk David Wilmot Henry Clay Stephen Douglas John Brown Abraham Lincoln

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