8th - CHAPTER 10 EXAM

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1 Multiple Choice 8th - CHAPTER 10 EXAM Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Astoria was a significant region in the Pacific Northwest at the beginning of the 1800s for all of the following reasons, except which? a. It was a source of land disputes between Russia, France, and the U.S. b. It was the first major fur-trading post established by John Jacob Astor. c. It was a symbol of the drive to explore the American West. d. It was one of the earliest settlements in what would become Oregon Country. 2. Which of the following does not account for why American settlers moved to the Pacific Northwest? a. The fair climate and rich soil of Oregon Country appealed to farmers. b. The Panic of 1837 caused many economic hardships to American settlers. c. The Great Plains offered little to farmers who were used to abundant rainfall. d. The territorial acquisitions of the U.S. and Spain forced settlers off their land. 3. Which of these was not a challenge that pioneers faced on the Oregon Trail? a. shortages of food, supplies, and water c. mistreatment by American Indians b. barriers such as mountains d. the high cost of moving a family 4. Which practice caused Mormons to be persecuted in the 1850s? a. the ritual slaughter of animals c. the circumcision of newborn males b. marriage to more than one wife d. morning prayer in public schools 5. What was the significance of Father Hidalgo y Costilla s rebellion? a. It pushed American settlers back over Mexico s northern border, but failed to achieve a ban on slavery. b. It failed to overthrow the Spanish monarch, but inspired the independence movement to grow. c. It showed that Christian beliefs could succeed in uniting large groups for political causes. d. It succeeded in stopping Spanish agents from giving American Indian and mestizo land to settlers.

2 8th - CHAPTER 10 EXAM 6. Who was Stephen F. Austin? a. an empresario who started a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822 b. the only American to witness the signing of the Mexican constitution in 1824 c. an American agent who enforced Mexico s laws on new settlers until 1830 d. a southern settler who spurred Texans to defy the ban on slavery in I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism, and everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid with all dispatch [speed] VICTORY OR DEATH. -- from a letter written by William Travis Travis wrote those words during the build-up to which important battle of the Texas War for Independence? a. the Battle of Goliad c. the Battle of the Alamo b. the Battle of Gonzales d. the Battle of San Jacinto 8. How did the slavery issue get tied up with manifest destiny in the 1840s and 50s? a. Slaveholders did not know if ownership claims would be honored in the new territories. b. Slavery went against the democratic values implied by the philosophy of manifest destiny. c. Americans did not know if the institution of slavery would be allowed in the new territories. d. Southern slaveholders thought expansion in the spirit of manifest destiny would cause their region to lose power. 9. Who referred to a piece of land as a stolen province, and what were they talking about? a. The British, about Oregon Country c. The American Indians, about Utah b. The Mexicans, about Texas d. The Spanish, about California 10. Which was true about the Spanish Southwest in the early 1800s? a. American settlers outnumbered the Spanish colonists and American Indians. b. New Spain s northern frontier was made up of Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. c. Pueblo Indians introduced corn and beans to the Spanish colonists. d. Missions were the center of colonial life in New Mexico.

3 11. Which was true about the Spanish California mission system? a. No American Indians worked at the missions of their own free will. b. Many California Indians who labored at the missions died of European diseases. c. Spanish military forts called presidios replaced abandoned California missions. d. The U.S. government eventually shut down the California mission system. 12. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain. What happened in California as a result? a. Californios fought for independence from Mexico. b. Mexican businessmen planned a rail route to Canada. c. American Indians were given parcels of land called ranchos. d. Mexican officials terminated the mission system. 13. How did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848, affect the United States? a. It drew the border line that divides the U.S. from Mexico to this day. b. It increased the size of the U.S. by almost 25 percent. c. It enabled the U.S. to collect $18 million in property taxes from Mexico. d. It gave the U.S. the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico. 14. Which challenge did Mexican Americans face when American settlers poured into the Southwest after the Mexican War? a. Mexican legal ideas included community water rights and community property rights, but American legal ideas did not. b. Mexican American communities wanted to celebrate Mexican holidays, but American settlers would not allow it. c. Mexican Americans preached Roman Catholicism, but American settlers belonged to a variety of religious groups. d. Mexican Americans had essential skills to survive and flourish in the region and were forced to share them with Americans. 15. Which of the following was a result of the mixing of various cultures in the Southwest after the Mexican Cession? a. American settlers taught Mexican Americans about mining in the mountains. b. American settlers introduced saddles and other tools to Mexican American ranchers. c. American Indians inspired the use of adobe as a building material in the Southwest. d. American Indians were taught to use money by Spanish settlers in the Southwest.

4 16. How did Brigham Young s influence resolve the western dispute over water rights? a. Young supported the eastern U.S. tradition regarding equal access to water. b. Young promoted the idea that the good of the community should outweigh the interests of individuals. c. Young felt that irrigation was less effective than dams or canals for large-scale agriculture. d. Young felt that addressing individual water use was the key to resolving the problem for the entire community. 17. Which description fits the group of people known as forty-niners? a. gold-seekers from America and abroad who migrated to California b. middle-aged married men with previous gold-mining experience c. individualistic prospectors of California gold-mining sites d. Mexicans and South Americans who immigrated to find gold 18. What happened to California s population as a result of the Gold Rush? a. The population grew, but not as much as it had during the Spanish and Mexican periods of settlement. b. The population boomed during gold fever, but declined just as quickly because of inflation. c. Immigrants and Americans flocked to California to get rich quick and stayed to build a stable frontier society. d. Californios and American Indians still outnumbered immigrants and Americans after the Gold Rush. 19. What role did the Transcontinental Railroad play in California s development? a. It contributed to California s population explosion by bringing settlers to the West in the mid-1850s. b. It slowed down California s economy because it took two decades and many thousands of dollars to complete. c. It gave California s economy the means to grow by connecting the state to the rest of the country. d. It damaged California s environment by requiring the development of coal mining and timber industries.

5 20. When they first moved from New York in the early 1830s, what did Mormons hope to find in the West? a. gold and other natural resources b. a place to become traders and trappers c. a sense of religious freedom d. a set of golden tablets with religious teachings 21. While many settlers followed the Oregon Trail, the Santa Fe Trail was used mostly by a. traders. c. mountain men. b. Mormons. d. Californios. 22. Texas won its independence after defeating the Mexican Army at the Battle of a. Goliad. c. the Alamo. b. Gonzales. d. San Jacinto. PRACTICING SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS Study the graph below and answer the questions that follow.

6 23. By how much did San Francisco s population increase between 1847 and 1850? a. from 5,000 to 25,000 c. from 5,000 to 10,000 b. from 1,000 to 35,000 d. from 1,000 to 25,000 Completion Complete each statement American expansionists cried in reference to the line to which they wanted their northern territory to extend. (Fifty-four forty or fight!/manifest destiny!) 25. In the West the issue of rights was especially important given the region's dry climate. (equal/water) 26. was an influential Californio who encouraged American rule in California (John C. Frémont/Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo) 27. The American Fur Company bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who were known as. (mountain men/pioneers) 28. A dispute over the border between Mexico and the United States led to the. (Texas Revolution/Mexican-American War) 29. In 1846 Americans settlers in California seized the town of Sonoma, launching the _. (Mexican-American War/Bear Flag Revolt) 30. founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in western New York. (Brigham Young/Joseph Smith) 31. was the American general who captured Mexico City and ended the Mexican-American War. (Zachary Taylor/Winfield Scott)

7 Matching In the space provided, write the letter of the term or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used. a. Antonio López de Santa Anna h. Santa Fe Trail b. Brigham Young i. Stephen F. Austin c. James K. Polk j. the Alamo d. Jim Beckwourth k. the Gadsden Purchase e. John Jacob Astor l. the Oregon Trail f. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla m. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo g. Sam Houston 32. The first president of Texas 33. An important battle site in the Texas Revolution 34. Fur merchant who founded a fur trading post called Astoria 35. It gave the United States much of Mexico s northern territory 36. An empresario who started a colony on the lower Colorado River in The 2,000 mile route that led from Missouri to the West 38. An African American fur trapper and explorer 39. Leader who led the Mormons to Utah 40. U.S. president who promised to annex Oregon and Texas

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