Born Nov. 2, 1795 near Pineville, NC Education graduate of the University of North Carolina 1818

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2 Born Nov. 2, 1795 near Pineville, NC Education graduate of the University of North Carolina 1818 Occupation Lawyer Political Party Democratic Married Jan. 1, 1824 to Sarah Childress Died June 15, 1849

3 Platform Ideas or topics in a political campaign Plank Single individual ideas or parts that make up a platform

4 Democrats President James K. Polk (TN) 170 electoral votes Vice President George M. Dallas (PA) Whigs President Henry Clay (KY) 105 Vice President Theodore Frelinghuysen (NJ)

5 Liberty Party President James G. Birney (KY) 0 Vice President Thomas Morris (OH) Polk was the first Dark Horse candidate. He ran on an expansionist platform or Fight! Polk s threat to Britain over the Oregon Territory

6 Was written in a NY Newspaper Said it is the historical belief that the United States is destined and divinely ordained by God to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.

7 Oregon was originally claimed by Spain England made claim in 1579 Russia laid claim in early 1700s U.S. made claims Polk wanted to fulfill his campaign promise of or Fight!, but he was bluffing because we were not about to go to war with Great Britain over Oregon when we were already on the verge of war with Mexico Oregon Treaty (1846) Great Britain was seeing more and more Americans along the Columbia River G.B. decided to extend the 49 degree line to the coast G.B. took the North and U.S. took the South

8 What caused Jackson to break relations with Mexico? The Mexican Revolution caused many American citizens to suffer heavy losses Repeated requests to collect for damages were ignored 1837 Jackson broke relations and threatened to send a warship to enforce our claims What caused Mexico to break relations with Tyler? Tyler s signing of the Bill to Annex Texas on March 1, 1845

9 How did Polk try to renew Mexican- American relations? He sent John Slidell to Mexico Slidell was prepared to offer $5 million for New Mexico and $25 million for California if Mexico would recognize Texas annexation The U.S. would pay the $2 million debt Mexico owed to American citizens if Mexico recognized the Rio Grande River as the southern boundary of Texas

10 Slidell sat for days waiting for a meeting with the Mexican gov t. Never occurred The deal was never offered Polk thought aggressive measures must be taken

11 How did the war begin? General Zachary Taylor was sent with 2,000 men to police the Rio Grande River Taylor built a fort opposite the Mexican city of Matamoros, aimed his artillery at the town, and blockaded the Rio Grande Mexico ordered Taylor to withdraw his troops beyond the Nueces River Taylor refused A Mexican force crossed the river and killed 16 American troops April 25, 1846

12 What reason did Polk give Congress in asking that war be declared on Mexico May 11, 1846? He said Mexico started it by crossing onto American soil and killing 16 Americans War was declared on May 13, 1846 The vote was 40-2 in the Senate and in the House

13 Some Whigs opposed the war Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois (37 years old and serving his only term in the House) asked, Was the spot on which Taylor s scouts killed, our spot? Mexico claims its their spot! Lincoln didn t feel we should be in this war and voted no.

14 Americans won battles in Monterrey, Buena Vista, and Vera Cruz Polk then sent Nicholas Trist with an offer to end the war. Mexico refused, so Gen. Winfield Scott was ordered to continue. Americans won battles at Chapultepec and Mexico City

15 Santa Anna left Mexico City and went to Guadalupe-Hidalgo (a suburb of Mexico City) U.S. Marines captured Mexico City

16 U.S. gained California and the Mexican Cession (Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado) and the Rio Grande was established as the southern border of Texas (U.S.) U.S. gave Mexico $15 million to lessen the pain of losing Texas U.S. paid $3.25 million that Mexico owed American citizens for damages during the Mexican Revolution

17 Gold was discovered in California in 1848 Great flood of migration started to settle the land Building of the Panama canal was discussed

18 Born Nov. 24, 1784 in Orange County, VA Education Little formal schooling Political Party Whig Married June 21, 1810 to Margaret Mackall Smith Died July 9, 1850 Nickname Old Rough and Ready

19 Whigs President Zachary Taylor (LA) 163 electoral votes Vice President Millard Fillmore (NY) Democrats President Lewis Cass (MI) 127 Vice President William Butler (KY) Free Soil Party President Martin Van Buren (NY) - 0 Vice President Charles Francis Adams (MA) (Son of John Quincy Adams)

20 When Taylor died on July 9, 1850, Millard Fillmore became President Born Jan. 7, 1800 in Locke, NY Education Studied law privately Occupation Lawyer Political Party Whig Married Feb. 5, 1826 to Abigail Powers Died March 8, 1874 Fillmore had no Vice President

21 Life in California to 1848 Spain saw it as a buffer state to the North 1700s Russians started moving South 1769 Spanish began developing the area to keep the Russians out (Fr. Junipero Serra) 1784 Serra died, but his Friars and Padres built up Los Angeles and yerba Buena (San Francisco) 1846 Bidwell and Donner parties headed for CA. The Donner Party got bogged down in a Sierra Nevada blizzard. They drank soup of boiled leather and powdered bones and resorted to cannibalism. Only 34 out of 79 reached CA.

22 Gold was discovered 1848 John Sutter built a sawmill and fort in Sacramento Jan. 24, 1848 James Marshall found gold in the water while building the mill Sutter and Marshall tried to keep the discovery a secret, but word spread Population boom , ,000

23 The 49ers Land Routes (Unsafe but quicker) Santa Fe Trail Southern route Problems Heat and Indians Oregon Trail Northern route Problems Cold, snow, and Indians Spanish Route Middle route Problems Heat, snow, and Indians

24 Water Routes (Safer but longer) Ocean Route Along Atlantic coast of North and South America, around Cape Horn to CA Took 6-9 months Combo Route Along Atlantic coast to Panama Cross Panama by land Pacific Ocean to CA Yellow fever and malaria were the major problems

25 People were mostly gold seekers Prices were unbelievably high $3 for ham and eggs $50 for a shovel $75 for a pick Crime was prevalent no organized law Claim Jumping Taking land away from people during the gold rush Horse stealing

26 Vigilantes Kept watch before organized law arrived Citizen groups kept law and order People found guilty were usually hanged

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