The Rise of a Mass Democracy, Chapter 13 AP US History

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1 The Rise of a Mass Democracy, Chapter 13 AP US History

2 Learning Goals: Students will be able to: Explain how the democratization of American politics contributed to the rise of Andrew Jackson. Evaluate how Jackson s policies and the Panic of 1837 helped launch and solidify the Whig Party? Identify the new assumptions about human nature that influenced the religious movements of this era. Analyze how the reform movements of this era aimed at making Americans more free and more orderly.

3 What happened to the Era of Good Feelings? This was never an entirely tranquil period! The Panic of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise shattered any illusion of Good Feelings The 1820s and 1830s would experience great upheaval Economic distress and the slavery issue increased the political stakes New political parties emerged. What else changed in America? Election practices and the health of the democracy. Political muscles would be flexed

4 The Election of 1824 What ended the Era of Good Feelings? Sectional tensions! What happened in this election? FOUR Republicans candidates vied for the presidency: Each represented a faction of the Republican Party John Quincy Adams highly intelligent and experienced. William Crawford Henry Clay Andrew Jackson hero of New Orleans in the War of 1812

5 Who is Andrew Jackson? Popular frontier fighter Popular in the South Won support from the opponents of the American System (Pennsylvania and the northern states) The only candidate NOT linked to the Monroe administration What does Thomas Jefferson think of Jackson? one of the most unfit men I know of for such a place.

6 How does the Election play out? ¾ of the Congressional Republicans REFUSED to attend the caucus William Crawford was selected as presidential candidate suffered a stroke Jackson received the most popular and electoral votes Jackson failed to gain the necessary votes according to the Constitution What happens next? The Constitution requires, that the election go to the House of Representatives This group has to choose among the three top candidates (Jackson, Adams, & Calhoun) Henry Clay throws his support to John Quincy Adams Jackson is BITTER!

7 How does Adams handle the presidency? Guiding principle: IMPROVEMENT (social & personal) Adams felt that the American republic was the CULMINATION of human progress Adams wants to further the progress What are his plans: Improve public education Expand communications and commerce Federal internal improvements (ambitious ones) What was the corrupt bargain? President Adams appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State AFTER being elected! Jackson supporters charged that a deal had been made between Adams and Clay (basically that Adams BOUGHT Clay s support) This was a cloud over the Adams administration

8 The Rise of Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson s victory over the British in the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 made him a popular hero. It was a time of vague but widespread discontent with Washington. In part because of the Panic of 1819

9 Jackson s position as a political outsider endeared him to the public and supporters. Began to build a strong political organization Called themselves the Democratic Party Also led by Martin Van Buren In 1828 the Democrats nominated Jackson for president Those who remained loyal to Adams called themselves National Republicans and re-nominated Adams Democrats portrayed Jackson as a man of the people (even though he was a wealthy farmer) And they portrayed Adams as the aristocrat Jackson won the election with the common-man appeal His victory also showed a clear sectional split South and Southwest for Jackson New England mostly for Adams

10

11 Jackson in Office The Spoils system Jackson immediately fired ½ of the civil servants on the federal payroll Most in the Northeast Replaced them with supporters Jackson did not initiate the spoils system He defended it and practiced it Frequent rotation in office gave more people a chance to serve Jackson opposed federal support for internal improvements Maysville Road Veto: providing federal government monies to build and expand state roads. 1st of 8 vetoes by Jackson on public works projects Indian Removal Act of 1830 Southerners liked the Maysville Road veto and the Indian Removal Act

12 Southerners resented Jackson s lack of action against the 1828 Tariff of Abominations What did this Tariff do? Protected northern manufacturers and western farmers from foreign competition But raised the price that southerners had to pay for finished products Why did Southerners oppose the tariff? Southerners sold their raw products (cotton) on the world market without protections. Manufactured goods had to be purchased through the American market heavily protected by tariffs. Essentially, the South felt stuck in this system.

13 Nullification That tariff issue prepared the way for a break between President Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun Calhoun was becoming the chief spokesman for the southern planter class. Calhoun wrote and circulated the South Carolina Exposition and Protest In opposition to the Tariff of 1828 Argued protective tariffs were unconstitutional States had the right to nullify federal laws that violated the U.S. Constitution

14 Nov. 1832, South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832 SC forbade the collection of customs duties at its ports Acted on Calhoun s doctrine Jackson denounced the state s defiance threatened to use the army and navy to enforce federal laws Compromise of 1833 Prevented a military fight between the federal government and South Carolina Proposed by Henry Clay South Carolina rescinded nullification Congress passed a new tariff law that gradually lowered duties over the next 9 years

15 Where did the majority of the American populace lived in 1790? east of the Appalachian Mountains Within several hundred miles of the Atlantic Ocean By 1840, the populace begins to move WEST! Why? We are a growing nation About 17 million people were living between the Appalachians and the Mississippi This area is called the Old Northwest and Old Southwest by present-day historians. Were Americans moving westward to seek adventure? YES Why move west? Most people who migrated were expecting a better version of the life they had in the east What would encourage this idea? Growing power in the federal government Ruthless Indian Removal efforts A boom in agricultural prices

16 The Sweep West Movement west happened in spurts or bursts The American populace jumped over the Appalachians The first burst ( ) brought four new states into the Union. Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio The second burst ( ) added six states Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri Settlers also began moving into Michigan during this era How did societies choose to move during this time? As families How did they choose to settle? Usually in clusters near navigable rivers Both the Ohio and the Mississippi river systems were inviting places for settlements.

17 Western Society and Customs

18 The Far West erstadt_albert_pikes_peak.jpg What would cause westerners to move even further west? EXPLORATION! Zebulon Pike explored portions of the Spanish Southwest in 1806 As he did this, he found a Colorado peak that would later be named after him Pike s Peak! Pike was not the only person who explored these regions. Following the Lewis and Clark expedition, many mountain men explored the Louisiana Territory

19 The Federal Government and the West While there were several causes of expansion during this era, is there one cause that spans the entire era? YES! The growing power of the federal government From before the signing of the Constitution, states were ceding lands to the federal government. What ordinances or changes will govern these lands? The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for the survey and sale of the lands. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 brought the Mississippi River under American control. The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 removed all traces of Spanish power east of the Mississippi. What does this mean? The government was directly stimulating westward settlement. HOW?

20 The Removal of the Indians Who stood in the way of expansion and westward settlement? THE NATIVE AMERICANS The South had a particularly sizable number of Natives The Five Civilized Tribes: the Cherokee, the Choctaw, the Creeks, the Chickasaw, and the Seminole. Because of their lifestyle and commercial dealings, these tribes had intermarried with whites. In the South, explorers found a significant minority of mixedheritage peoples who embraced Christianity, agriculture, gristmills, and even owned slaves. Sequoyah devised a written language for the Cherokee Other Cherokee published a bilingual newspaper: the Cherokee Phoenix

21 Native life was very impressive, especially to the New England missionaries. Southern whites; however, viewed the Civilized Tribes with contempt and envied the lands they held. Presidents James Monroe and John Quincy Adams concluded treaties with the Indians; however, these insisted on the voluntary abandonment of lands. Especially those of mixed-heritage refused to leave they depended on the trade and lifestyle they knew for survival. PLEASE NOTE: burial grounds are sacred to the Native culture! NO building on these grounds!!! Treaty of Indian Springs (1825)

22 What happened with the Treaty of Indian Springs? Tribes of the Creek were divided in four ways: Upper Creek & Lower Creek lands encompass much of present day Florida, Alabama, North Carolina, & Georgia Red Stick Warring White Stick Peaceful The US desired these lands for settlement In January 1825, the US government instigated treaties to take these lands. William McIntosh tribal leader of the Upper Creek was allowed to speak for the Lower Creek chieftains. What is the issue? Before a treaty could be signed, all chieftains must be consulted. McIntosh signed the treaty without consult NO MORE MCINTOSH!

23 William McIntosh

24 The Indian Removal Act (1830) Jackson secured passage of the act. Authorized him to exchange public lands in the West for Indian territories in the EAST What is the REAL cost of removal? 5 minutes to write Share answers with class

25 The Trail of Tears

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