EXPANDING MARKETS & MOVING WEST C H AP T E R 9

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1 EXPANDING MARKETS & MOVING WEST C H AP T E R 9

2 MARKET REVOLUTION Becoming more industrialized, especially in the Northeast with textile mills, but also mining was beginning to pay big dividends Farmers were shifting from subsistent to specialization to make money from their land Market Revolution: People buy and sell goods instead of making them for themselves! During the 1840 s the US economy grew more than it had in the previous 40 years! Capitalism: Private business and individuals control the means of production Entrepreneurs: People willing to invest their money in a business in hopes of seeing great profits

3 FREE ENTERPRISE A system in which one recognizes the right to own private property, to undertake private business activities and make a profit from them.

4 SAMUEL F. B. MORSE Perfected the telegraph in 1832 Invented Morse Code The ability to send messages across the continent Spurred by journalists over 50,000 miles of wire spans the continent by 1860 What hath God wrought?

5 AMERICA S MARKET REVOLUTION Was allowed to take off because of these important factors: - Inventive Minds - Risk Taking Industrialists - An abundance of natural resources - Large workforce- Immigrants

6 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION The building of the Erie Canal led to the development of even more canals in the northeast The Railroad will soon compete with the Canal System Reduced shipping costs Regional Specialties were able to link together because of the railroad, thus improving the economy Cotton from the South Grain and beef from the west Shipping/Textiles from the Northeast

7 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY OF THE SOUTH Southern economy grows with cotton sales going global! Cotton Gin Textile Mills in the Northeast Cotton was the largest exported good in America Cotton was King!

8 NEW TECHNOLOGY EASES LIFE The McCormick Reaper made thrashing wheat much easier and less time consuming Marketed in America and Europe Today it is International Harvester The John Deere Steel plow was able to cut through the sod of the Plains

9 OTHER CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION In 1806 Congress funded the building of the National Road. First major east-west highway This will lead to people moving further and further westward Americans from every region were, by these advancements able to keep in touch with each other It also will lead to the Pioneer Spirit and Manifest Destiny

10 MANIFEST DESTINY SECTI ON 2

11 MANIFEST DESTINY A term coined by magazine editor John Louis O Sullivan The idea that God has ordained that the land of America should be inhabited and used by Americans Again we will over run Native Americans in the process

12 RESISTANCE/ TREATIES Natives have been pushed westward since the first colonists arrived in the 1600 s The Black Hawk War was an attempt to fight for land given to them by the government in treaties It did not go well for the Blackhawk as they were slaughtered in August 1832 They were moved further westward

13 TRAILS WEST There were several trails to the west At first guides were used to lead the emigrants west As the paths became worn they were traveled without guides Mountain Men were out there already making their living by hunting and trapping The Oregon Trail was one of several carved out paths

14 It was understood that there were perils in making the trek west The possibility of being attacked by Indians Getting lost Not making it out of the mountains before the snow set in Disease and exposure The Donner Party 5-6 month trip UNFORGIVING

15 NATIVE AMERICANS Overlanders killed more Native Americans than the other way around Attacks by Native Americans were rare The increase in traffic worried the natives that the buffalo migration would be disturbed In response the Federal Government made the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851

16 THE MORMONS Founded by Joseph Smith in New York He will move his flock to Illinois where they buy a town and name it Nauvoo Smith is killed because of the communities religious practices Brigham Young becomes the leader and moves the group to the Utah Territory

17 MORMON MIGRATION After the death of Joseph Smith in Nauvoo, Illinois the Mormons will make their way to Utah (part of Mexico at the time) They will settle in the Salt Lake Valley region having established the Mormon Trail In 1850 President Millard Fillmore will place Brigham Young as Territorial Governor

18 TERRITORIAL DISPUTES Britain and Russia had made land claims to the Oregon Territory The Lewis and Clark Expedition had claimed the territory for the United States in 1805 Disputes raged in the late 1840 s to where Polk s campaign slogan was or Fight! It did not come down to a fight Russia withdrew Britain agreed to the 49 Parallel Very good access to the Pacific which led to trade with Japan and China later

19 EXPANSION IN TEXAS SECTI ON 3

20 SPANISH SETTLEMENT OF THE SOUTHWEST Failure to find gold or wealth slowed settlement 1598 first settlers migrate north of the Rio Grande Spanish built Presidios- forts to protect settlers and serve as trading posts Catholic Church became the primary force of settlement by building missions Colonization slowly increases and eventually it reaches what is today California President J.Q. Adams and Jackson both tried to buy Texas

21 OPENING UP TEXAS After gaining their independence from Spain in 1821 Mexico was very eager to get Texas settled Mexican s themselves did not want to move north because of the threat of the Native American s Mexico established Empresario s or agents to recruit settlers in exchange for land Stephen F. Austin was the first and most successful

22 MEXICAN REQUIREMENTS Settlers to Texas had to agree to the following... Acquire Mexican citizenship Practice Mexican customs and traditions Become Catholic Abide by Mexico Law Attempt to recruit more settlers

23 RESTRICTIONS BY MEXICO In 1830 Mexico closed its borders to any more American settlers. They still came Then the government tried to ban slavery thinking this would keep out Americans. It did not. Mexico taxed imports from America into Texas The new laws angered the American s

24 TEXAS INDEPENDENCE In 1832 American settlers held a convention to discuss the issues with Mexico Lift the ban on American immigration Decrease the taxes on imported goods In 1833 a much more aggressive convention took place Make Texas a separate state of Mexico Wrote a Constitution for Texas Stephen Austin is sent to Mexico City to negotiate with the government, they do not even meet with him Austin writes a letter that states Texas should organize its own state government. Mexico intercepts the letter and arrests Austin on charges of treason In 1834, in Mexico City, Santa Anna declares himself dictator 1835 Austin is released from jail and tells Texas to organize an army, it will take war with Mexico to gain Texas independence

25 TEXAS ORGANIZES AN ARMY Sam Houston, a former governor of Tennessee and friend of Andrew Jackson, has moved to Texas As an experienced military leader he will take command of the Texas Army Texas will win its first victory at a small military post called Gonzales

26 A small mission church will be the site of a 13 day stand off between 187 American s, Texans and others and 6,000 Mexican soldiers under the leadership of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Sam Houston asks Col. William Travis of Alabama to buy him some time to organize against this major force THE ALAMO

27 THE ALAMO Some of America s most famous citizens are in attendance at the Alamo Davey Crockett, Jim Bowie and William Travis Texas has declared independence from Mexico March 6, 1836 Santa Anna s army defeats those in the Mission Only three people are spared by the Mexican army

28 THE MASSACRE AT GOLIAD While Santa Anna was in San Antonio his second in command, Gen. Urrea, was securing his supply line to the Gulf of Mexico The Texans had seized a fort in the town of Goliad to try and disrupt the supplies and aid those at the Alamo When they were caught outside the fort by Gen. Urrea 385 men surrendered Gen. Urrea was ordered to execute them and he did.

29 THE BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO RIVER Gen. Santa Anna had been tracking Sam Houston eastward thinking he was trying to make it to Louisiana Houston was setting a trap and it works perfectly at the San Jacinto River With the custom of siesta the Mexican army was overwhelmed by a much smaller force of Texans The battle was over in 19 minutes

30 THE SURRENDER OF SANTA ANNA As the battle rages Santa Anna sneaks away trying to escape After the battle scouts are searching the area and find a man dressed in a privates uniform As he is being brought back to camp prisoners are addressing him as El Presidente Houston convinces him to agree to the Independence of the Republic of Texas by signing the Treaty of Velasco

31 ANNEXATION September 1836 Sam Houston is elected President of the Republic of Texas The citizens voted overwhelmingly for annexation by the United States Many Northern Congressmen were opposed to the acceptance of Texas In 1844 President Polk is in favor of annexation! 1845 Texas joins the Union

32 WAR WITH MEXICO SECTI ON 4

33 CALIFORNIA, TEXAS AND OREGON

34 On his way out of office President Tyler pushed a resolution through to annex Texas Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States Dispute was over the southern border of Texas November 1845 John Slidell is sent to Mexico City to inquire as to the cost of California No one will meet with him PRESIDENT TYLER

35 LET S PICK A FIGHT President Polk will order troops led by Zachery Taylor over the Nueces River Mexico saw this as an invasion of their country Mexico attacks the troops, spilling American blood in the process President Polk asks Congress to declare war!

36 POLK SENDS IN TAYLOR Taylor s troops easily defeat Mexican troops in two early fights In Northern California settlers, lead by John C. Fremont, defeat the small Mexican presence and establish the Bear Flag Republic A few weeks later, American naval forces take control of California for the United States

37 POLK REPLACES TAYLOR Taylor was having too much success and President Polk worried that Taylor could replace him in the next Presidential election President Polk places the talented Gen. Winfield Scott in command Despite tremendous losses the Mexican army refuses to surrender

38 BATTLE FOR MEXICO CITY On September 14, 1847 Gen. Scott defeats the Mexican Army guarding Mexico City On February 2, 1848 the leaders sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

39 IMPACT OF THE WAR WITH MEXICO

40 IMPACT OF THE WAR WITH MEXICO Mexican War opened vast new lands Increased land led to increased debate over slavery Should slavery be allowed to spread westward? As a part of this debate Southerners wanted new laws to help them capture escaped slaves in the North At first President Polk, a Southerner and slave owner, did not think slavery would spread westward He thought the land out west would not support the crops that made slavery necessary in the South The Gadsden Purchase was made to make way for the first transcontinental railroad. Another $10 million

41 THE WILMOT PROVISO In August of 1846 Representative David Wilmot of Massachusetts proposed the Wilmot Proviso Any territory gained in the war with Mexico would not be allowed to have slavery or indentured servitude Southerners were outraged It passed in the House but the Senate refused to vote on it

42 ELECTION OF 1848 Three candidates for President Democratic candidate Lewis Cass, popular sovereignty Whig candidate Zachery Taylor, no stand on the issue of slavery in the territories Free-Soil candidate Martin Van Buren, supported Wilmot Proviso Zachery Taylor will win the election

43 CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH

44 CALIFORNIA AND THE GOLD RUSH 1848: The discovery of gold in California will drive thousands of settlers west looking for riches By the end of 1849, gold was discovered in 1848, nearly 80,000 Forty-Niners had arrived Very diverse population of people lived in California California will skip over territorial status and immediately apply for statehood This forces national debate again over slavery. If California comes in as either it throws off the balance maintained in the Senate Southerners began to threaten secession

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