Video warm-up- Market Revolution (crash course)

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1 Warm-up for 9-1 Video warm-up- Market Revolution (crash course) What inventions and technologies have made your lives more enjoyable? Have these technologies helped the economy?

2 Market Revolution- major changes in the U.S. economy produced by people buying and selling goods rather than being self sufficient farmers shift from selfsufficiency to specializationraising one or two cash crops growth depended on capitalism- economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production ****

3 entrepreneurs- investors that risked their own $ in new industries from the French word meaning to undertake (economy grew more in the 1840 s than it had in the previous 40 yrs.) new inventions revolutionized the industrial and agricultural sectors manufactured items grow less expensive (a clock that cost $50 in 1800 could be produced by a machine for a ½ dollar by 1850 & clothing prices tumbled by more than 75%) (Elias Howe patented the sewing machine in 1846)

4 Economic Revolution telegraph- device for the electrical transmission of coded messages over wires patented by Samuel Morse ,000 miles by 1854 steamboats essential to expansion of agricultural and industry 3,300 miles of canals constructed by 1841 connecting the NE to the Midwest railroad growth in late 1800 s offered speed over steamboats 10,000 miles of track by 1850

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7 Regional Markets s South- remained agricultural relying on cotton, tobacco, & rice North- continued to industrialize, investing in railroads & factories West- fertile soil, but wooded areas needed clearing first John Deere- invented the 1 st steel plow enabled farmers to replace oxen w/ horses Cyrus McCormick- invented the mechanical reaper did the work of 5 men harvesting wheat

8 Warm-up for 9-2 Musical warm-up Think about a time when you moved to a new community, switched schools, or experienced some other major change in your lives. Did you think the change gave you an opportunity to make a fresh start? Explain.

9 Manifest destiny 19 th century belief that the U.S. would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican Territory destined by God as settlers move west they affected Native American communities some assimilated, some fought

10 Black Hawk War resulted from settlers pressuring Indians to move west of the Miss. River Illinois militia slaughtered over 200 forcibly removed Sauk & Fox tribes middle ground beneficial relationship between settlers & Indians needed Indians as trading partners & guides moving farther west

11 Treaty of Fort Laramie provided various Indian nations w/ control of central plains (Rocky Mts. East to Mississippi River & from the Arkansas River north to Canada) promise not to attack settlers & allow construction of forts & roads *U.S. govt. violated & later treaties moved Indians to reservations

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13 Westward Migration Santa Fe Trail- trail from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico (800 miles took 2-3 months) Oregon Trail- trail from Independence, Missouri, to Portland Oregon (2000 miles took 4-5 months) people traveled in groups to protect against attacks by Native Americans

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15 Mormons members of a church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 est. the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in NY moved to Illinois, people eventually protested against polygamy Smith was murdered Brigham Young- moved followers outside U.S. borders (Great Salt Lake, Utah)

16 Border Disputes w/ GB Fifty-Four Forty or Fight - a slogan used in Polk s 1844 presidential campaign that called for the U.S. annexation of the Oregon Territory decline of fur trade waned GB s interest in territory 49 th parallel west est. in 1846 is current U.S. border

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19 Warm-up for 9-3 Imagine that Texas was a state in As a result the U.S. allowed Mexicans to settle in Texas to keep the Native Americans off the land. Recently however, the U.S. has been having problems with the Mexicans living in Texas. They have been ignoring the state and federal constitutions. They have demanded the legalization of slavery (which is outlawed), they are collecting taxes but not giving any to the government, they are not abiding by the laws addressing religion, and they are threatening to separate from the U.S. and make the territory part of Mexico. Furthermore, they are taking over and settling in more and more land. It is possible that the Americans are going to be the minority in the state. The U.S. feels as if the Mexicans in Texas have been taking advantage of the U.S. generosity. What do you think the U.S. should do about this problem?

20 friction between Native Americans and Mexicans limited settlement in Texas Spain s mission system tried to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and settle on mission lands mission system declines when Mexico won its independence in 1821 Mexican settlers called Tejanos Apache and Comanche tribes threatened Tejanos (vast uncontrolled territory)

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22 Mexican govt. encourages American farmers to help protect territory land grants- gift of land offered by Mexican govt. to empresarios or agents (sold cheap land to Americans who agreed to follow Mexican law and observe Roman Catholicism) Stephen F. Austinsuccessful agent that est. a colony

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24 Fight for Independence cultural differences over slavery increased tensions Mexico abolished slavery in 1824 Mexico tried to close its borders in 1830, but pop. doubled between Austin traveled to Mexico City to petition for self-govt. in 1833 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Mexican President (11 times) imprisoned Austin for inciting revolution, rebellions erupted

25 Fight for Independence cont. Texas Revolution rebellion in which Texas gained its independence Alamo- former mission & fort in San Antonio Mexican forces massacred 187 rebellious Texans in 1836 (frontiersmen Davy Crockett & Jim Bowie killed)

26 Fight for Independence cont. next Santa Anna executed 300 Texans at Goliad Sam Houston- defeated and captured Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto Texans killed 630 Mexicans in 18 minutes with battle cry- Remember the Alamo Santa Anna forced to sign Treaty of Velasco granting independence Republic of Texas- Lone Star Republic nation w/ Sam Houston as President (September 1836)

27 Santa Anna's real leg was amputated after he was hit by cannon fire during a melee with the French in 1838 (the leg was interred with full military honors). In 1847, Santa Anna's artificial leg was captured by soldiers of the 4th Illinois Infantry during the Mexican-American War. The story goes, Santa Anna was enjoying a roasted chicken lunch when he and his troops were surprised by the Illinois soldiers. Eager to avoid capture, Santa Anna took to his horse, leaving the chicken and his leg behind. The soldiers took possession and returned to Illinois with the leg, which is why it is currently in the Illinois State Military Museum.

28 Houston invited the U.S. to annex- incorporate Texas Southerners wanted to annex Texas to extend slavery Northerners feared annexation, unequal balance of slave states & possible war w/ Mexico President James Polk (slaveholder) favored annexation Texas became the 28 th state in 1845

29 Warm-up for 9-4 Video warm-up Is war ever justified? Is acquiring more land a justifiable reason for war? Explain

30 James K. Polk 11 th President, Democrat ( ) expansionist sent emissary to buy New Mexico & California, but was refused to be seen sent General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande River slavery soon emerged as key issue between N & S

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32 War with Mexico, April February 1848 Mexico sent troops across river in response to Taylor s invasion and killed 9 Polk asked Congress to declare war in spite of Lincoln s spot resolution manifest destiny had launched the U.S. into its 1 st war on foreign territory

33 Stephen Kearny- colonel ordered to march troops 800 miles across desert in 1846 the long marcher took New Mexico w/o a shot being fired rebels in Cal. led by John Fremont seized Sonoma & declared independence Republic of California- nation proclaimed by American settlers in 1846 Kearny arrived and controlled Cal.

34 War in Mexico Mexicans fought under poor leadership U.S. leaders included Robert Lee, Ulysses Grant, Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott Scott did not lose one battle & captured Veracruz and Mexico City

35 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-1848 Mexico agrees to Rio Grande border for Texas cedes New Mexico and California for $15 million Gadsden Purchase- purchase of additional land in SW U.S. in 1853 est. the current borders of the lower 48 states

36 California Gold Rush began in 1848 when James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter s Mill forty-niners- prospectors who flocked to California in 1849 gold rush- included people from Asia, South America, Europe San Francisco- explodes and becomes a major port city California admitted to the Union in 1850 as a free state *one more sore point between N & S

37 SS Central America, known as the Ship of Gold, was a 280-foot sidewheel steamer that operated between Central America and the eastern coast of the United States during the 1850s. She was originally named the SS George Law. The ship sank in a hurricane in September 1857, along with more than 420 passengers and crew and 30,000 pounds of gold, contributing to the Panic of 1857.

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