Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West

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1 Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West

2 The Market Revolution factory system changed the lives of workers and consumers. People will stop growing and making things for their own survival and begin to sell them to make money for survival.

3 Capitalism the economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production If you don t buy it, they will not produce it.

4 New inventions Cause the standard of living to increase. Living better Charles Goodyear developed vulcanized rubber Elias Howe invention of the sewing machine. John Deere invented the steel plow Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper Samuel Morse invented the telegraph Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone

5 Steam engine makes a big impact The steam engine on trains and ships will allow for people to sell their products further away, faster, and cheaper. More people will move West. Allows for factories to be built anywhere. The South remains agricultural but, does expand its market The Northeast will produce more than ever at lower prices.

6

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8 The Roots of Manifest Destiny Belief that the U.S. should expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Roots lay in America s economic, political, and social experiences. *Puritans believed that God set this land aside for them. *The American Revolution made people believe the U.S. was special. *As the U.S. grew, people wanted what resources were in the West.

9 As settlers move West, interaction with Native Americans increase. More Native American tribes will be forced to relocate west of the Mississippi. The 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie provided various Native American nations control of the Central Plains. Native Americans promised not to attack settlers and to allow the construction of government forts and roads. The government pledged to honor the agreed-upon boundaries and to make annual payments to the Native Americans. The movement of settlers increased. Native American hunting lands were trampled and depleted of buffalo and elk. The U. S. government repeatedly violated the terms of the treaty. Subsequent treaties demanded that Native Americans abandon their lands and move to reservations.

10 Trails leading West Oregon Trail- Methodist missionaries, made their way into Oregon Territory where they set up mission schools to convert Native Americans to Christianity and educate them. Mormon Trail- An anti-mormon mob broke into the jail in New York and murdered John Smith and his brother. Brigham Young, decided to move his followers West. In 1847, the Mormons settled Salt Lake City, Utah.

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12 Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! The slogan referred to a land dispute between the United States and Britain over the Oregon Territory.

13 Fifty-Four Forty or Fight

14 54,40 or fight

15 Expanding to Texas Mexico offered free and cheap land to help deal with Native Americans and expand the Mexican economy. Stephen Austin brought 300 settlers to Texas. Most settlers came from southern states and brought with them, slaves. The population of settlers from the United States soon surpassed the population of Tejanos who lived in Texas.

16 Steve Austin

17 Culture Clash Mexico Spanish Catholic Abolished slavery American Settlers English Protestant Brought slaves

18 Texas Revolution Austin went to Santa Anna to ask for more political freedom for the Texans. Austin was thrown in jail for over a year. The Alamo was an old mission. The Texans fought bravely there but were eventually defeated by Santa Anna. All but a few were killed. Following that battle, Santa Anna attacked Goliad. Again, almost all Texans were killed. Sam Houston surrounded Santa Anna at San Jacinto. Santa Anna was forced to surrender. But, Mexicans never truly accepted Texas s independence.

19 The Republic of Texas Texas had hoped to be annexed into the U.S. Slavery stopped Texas from doing so. Would unbalance free states and slave states. Therefore, upset the balance in the senate. Sam Houston was elected as Texas s president.

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21 Houston Texans

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23 The Alamo

24 War With Mexico Polk now believed that war with Mexico would bring not only Texas but also New Mexico and California into the Union. South supported war against Mexico because they saw it as an opportunity to expand slavery and increase their power in Congress. North was against the war because they opposed slavery and Southern domination of the Union.

25 War Begins The U.S. sends troops into Mexican territory, Rio Grande, to force Mexico to fire the first shots. Troops also sent to New Mexico to take that region. Then, to California. The Bear Flag Republic- California declares freedom from Mexico. Troops invade Mexico. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war.

26 Bear Flag Revolt Americans in California revolted against Californios and created a new nation. The Bear Flag Republic.

27 Mexican Cession Included present-day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado, and Wyoming. Gadsden Purchase established the current borders of the lower 48 states

28 Mexican Cession

29 Gadsden Purchase

30 California Gold Rush Brings Diversity When gold was discovered, it led to a huge population boom. The vast majority of miners never got rich. The Chinese were the largest group to come from overseas. Free blacks also came by the hundreds, and many struck it rich. The fast-growing population included large numbers of Mexicans as well. The California demographic mix also included slaves that is until a constitutional convention in 1849

31 49er

32

33 California Statehood California s application for statehood provoked fiery protest in Congress and became just one more sore point between irate Northerners and Southerners, each intent on winning the sectional argument over slavery.

34 California Gold Rush

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