American Westward Expansion

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1 Chapter 9

2 Americans Head West In 1800 less than 400,000 settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. By the beginning of the Civil War, more Americans lived west of the Appalachians than lived along the Atlantic coast. Americans moved west for religious reasons and to own their own farms.

3 American Westward Expansion 1783: Treaty of Paris - America stretches from Atlantic Coast to Mississippi River 1803: Louisiana Purchase - Extends American western boundary to the Rockies 1819: Adams-Onis Treaty - America acquires Florida from Spain

4

5 This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west. Here Columbia, a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she sweeps west; she holds a school book as well. The different stages of economic activity of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation. [1]

6 Americans Head West A magazine editor (John Louis O Sullivan) declared the movement west was Manifest Destiny the idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western lands. The first settlers west of the Appalachians were squatters, because they settled on lands they did not own.

7 Manifest Destiny Expressed conviction that the development of a superior system of government and lifestyle dictated a God-given right of Americans to spread their civilization to the four corners of the continent. Territorial expansion was a mandate of Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny: belief that the United States had a mission to expand its borders from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean

8 Americans Head West Farming in the Midwest was made easier by new farming technology. In 1819 Jethro Wood patented a plow with an iron blade. In 1837 John Deere designed a plow with sharp-edged steel blades that cut cleanly through the tough Midwestern sod. In 1834 Cyrus McCormick patented the mechanical reaper.

9 Settling the Pacific Coast Native Americans and other nations had already claimed parts of Oregon and California The United States and Great Britain both wanted to own Oregon. Mexico controlled California, but its distance from Mexico City made it difficult to govern. In 1839 a German immigrant, John Sutter, built a trading post and cattle ranch on 50,000 acres in Sacramento Valley. Gold would later be found near his mill around 1849.

10 Prospecting

11 GOLD! At Sutter s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter

12 California Gold Rush, er s

13 Mining ( Boom ) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA

14 Settling the Pacific Coast By the 1840s, mountain men had carved out several east-west passages, such as the Oregon Trail. These trails were very important to the settlement of the west. Wagon trains used mountain men as guides at first, but over time relied on guidebooks written by earlier emigrants.

15 Trails Westward

16 The Mormon Migration In 1844 a mob murdered the Mormon leader Joseph Smith. Brigham Young, the new leader of the Mormons, decided to take his people west in search of religious freedom Several thousand Mormons emigrated on the Mormon Trail. In 1847 the Mormons stopped at the Great Salt Lake to build their new settlement

17 Checking for Understanding Idea popular in the United States during the 1800s that the country must expand its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny

18 Review What two inventions made it easier to farm the frontier? The steel-blade plow and the mechanical reaper.

19 Opening Texas to Americans Texas was under Mexican control after Mexico achieved independence from Spain in Because the Spanish-speaking people of the area refused to move to the northern part of the region where Native American groups lived, Mexico invited Americans and others to settle there.

20 Texas Independence Americans invited by Mexico to move to Texas if they: - Became Mexican citizens - Became Roman Catholics - Did not bring slaves - Americans come but don t follow rules

21 Opening Texas to Americans At first, the Americans agreed to Mexican citizenship, as required for settlement. The Americans did not adopt Mexican customs, however, nor did they think of Mexico as their country. In 1830 Mexico closed its borders to immigration by Americans The government also banned the import of enslaved labor and discouraged trade with the United States. These new laws angered settlers.

22 Texas Goes to War American settlers in Texas asked Mexico to reopen Texas to American immigrants and to decrease the taxes on imports. A convention held in 1833 asked Mexico to create a new Mexican state. (Texas) They wrote a constitution for the new state but the Mexican government denied it.

23 Texas Goes to War Stephen Austin persuaded Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to agree to lift the immigration ban and other demands. Austin had written a letter suggesting that Texas should organize its own state government. Mexican officials intercepted the letter and he was arrested.

24 Texas Goes to War In April 1834, Santa Anna denounced the Mexican constitution and made himself dictator. When Austin was released from prison in 1835, he urged Texans to organize an army, since he foresaw war with Mexico. Eventually, Sam Houston, a former governor of Tennessee and an experienced military leader, took command of the Texas army.

25 Texas Goes to War When Santa Anna and his forces came to San Antonio in 1836, over 180 Texan rebels were at the Alamo, an abandoned mission inside the town. The small force, commanded by William B. Travis and joined by 32 settlers, held off Santa Anna s army for 13 days. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna s army defeated the Texans at the Alamo.

26 Davey Crockett s Last Stand

27 The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

28

29 Remember the Alamo!

30 Texas Goes to War During this time, the new Texas government declared independence from Mexico. At the Battle of San Jacinto (juh-sin-to), Sam Houston and his Texas troops launched a surprise attack on the Mexican army. They captured Santa Anna, who was forced to sign a treaty recognizing independence for the Republic of Texas.

31 End Result : Texas becomes an independent country!

32 Major Battles Alamo: -188 Texans v Mexicans - Every Texan killed and burned San Jacinto: - Texans defeat Mexican Army and capture Santa Ana Texas becomes an independent country! : United States annexes Texas

33 Texas Goes to War In 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas. The citizens of Texas voted for annexation to become part of the United States. Many northern members of Congress were against admitting Texas as a slave state.

34 Americans began moving into Texas in the 1820 s and brought their slaves with them. War fought by Texans against Mexico because they believed their rights had been violated. Won by Texans in 1836 and requests to enter the U.S. Texas War of Independence

35 Texas and Oregon Enter the Union In 1844, Congress voted against annexation of Texas. Many northern Congressmen felt that it was a proslavery plot. James K. Polk, a candidate in the 1844 presidential election promised to annex Texas and Oregon and to buy California from Mexico. He won. President Tyler annexed Texas before Polk took office and Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the US. Mexico and the U.S. government disputed the southern border of Texas.

36 Texas becomes a state Texas signed alliance with Britain & France 1845: John Tyler annexes Texas

37 Texas War of Independence President Jackson and Van Buren refused to recognize Texas statehood because of slavery. Texas became its own country from 1836 to Texas entered as a U.S. state in 1845.

38 Texas and Oregon Enter the Union In public, Polk said the U.S. had a right to Oregon. Those people who supported this stand on Oregon used the slogan Fifty-four Forty or Fight. In private, Polk agreed to split the territory with Great Britain. In June 1846, the two countries agreed that the U.S. would acquire most of Oregon south of 49 north latitude.

39 Election of 1844 James Polk: Promises to expand America Oregon Country or Fight - Boundary dispute with England Compromise: Boundary set: 49

40 Oregon dispute Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 President Polk campaign slogan was 54,40 or fight Compromised with British and divided the Oregon Country at the 49 th parallel

41 The War with Mexico Polk sent a representative to negotiate the purchase of California from Mexico. Mexico refused to meet with him. Polk sent troops across the Nueces (new aces) River, led by Zachary Taylor. Mexico saw this as an invasion of their country and sent troops to attack. Polk declared war on Mexico.

42 The War with Mexico Taylor defeated the Mexican forces under Santa Anna In California, John C. Fremont had little trouble overcoming the Mexican presence there. On June 14, 1846, the settlers declared California independent from Mexico and named the region the Bear Flag Republic. A few weeks later, the U.S. Navy took possession of California for the United States. In 1847 the U.S. defeated Mexico and took over Mexico City.

43 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River Mexico gave the U. S. California, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Arizona (Mexican Cession) U. S. gave Mexico $18,000,000 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!

44 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $18 million

45 James K. Polk, Democrat President from 1845 to 1849 Responsible for adding more land then any other President Annexed Texas Oregon Territory Mexican Cession Picture/Polk

46 Reviewing Themes The idea of Manifest Destiny was realized as a result of the war with Mexico. What new problems did this increase in land cause for the United States? The increase caused the expansion of slavery into the new land.

47 Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.

48 he Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 April, 1847

49

50 The Donner Party A group of about 83 people headed west to California to what they thought would be the Promised Land They traveled along a new route and because of many accidents and problems along the way, ended up getting snowbound in the mountains. When food ran out and people were starving, the remaining members turned to cannibalism for survival. When the ordeal was over, 45 had lived and 38 had died.

51 The Doomed Donner Party CANNIBALISM!! Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen James Reed & Wife Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California!

52 The Oregon Trail Albert Bierstadt, 1869

53 Territorial Growth to 1853

54 Gadsden s Purchase Bought from Mexico for 10 Million Wanted to build Southern Transcontinental Railroad

55 Alaska- Seward s Icebox 1867 Purchased from Russia for 7 Million Heavily Criticized Purchased for Defensive and Strategic reasons Keep out of British hands Gold and Oil Seward s Day Secretary of State William Seward

56 Land Acquired between

57

58 Land Acquired between Louisiana Purchase Florida Texas Oregon Mexican Cession Gadsden Purchase Alaska

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